Australia locals and refugees after 1945: just not in the good room

23:57  22 may  2020
23:57  22 may  2020 Source:   dw.com

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Refugees who fled to Europe for a better life are living in former Nazi barracks. There were 112,000 prisoners there by February 1945 and it became an important source of forced labour for the There is a lot of room in the hangars.' The pictures of the refugees living at the camp emerged as Germany

Soon after 'Doctor Who’s' appearance in 1963, novels surrounding the series started to appear. The first ever novelization came out on 12 November, 1964, almost exactly a year after the first episode came out. Since then over 150 novelizations and 200 spin-off books have been published, including

quartered in Ebstorf: about the difficult new beginning of refugees and locals after the end of the war. Memories of a contemporary witness.

Ein Flüchtlingstreck im Jahr 1945, die Menschen gehen zu Fuß oder fahren auf einem Pferdwagen. © Photo: picture alliance / dpa A refugee trip in 1945, people walk or ride a horse-drawn carriage.

Tagesspiegel columnist George Turner, born in 1935 in Insterburg / East Prussia , lived in Ebstorf from 1945 to 1955 - in one of many thousands of refugee families who lived there in barracks or were quartered with families in Lower Saxony. He often heard the sentence "What do they want here?" Now he made it the title of his memoirs to his time as a refugee, which have been published by the Berlin Science Publishing House. In 1955 Turner graduated from the Herzog-Ernst-Gymnasium in Uelzen, studied law and received his doctorate in 1960 from the University of Göttingen. After his time as an assistant since 1963 and from 1968 as a professor at Clausthal University of Technology, he was President of the University of Hohenheim from 1970-1986, President of the Rectors' Conference from 1979-1983 and Senator for Science and Research in Berlin from 1986-1989.

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If you took the photo yourself, you can signify this by using the tag [OC] (original content) and after 24 hours you will be given special flair. The Vertriebenen were actually really a pain in the ass for the West German government in a political and cultural way, at least for the first ~20 years.

A bridge over the Tumen River marking the border between North Korea, foreground, and China.Credit Ed Jones/Agence France-Presse — Getty Images.

A total of 12 to 14 million people from the provinces of East and West Prussia, Silesia and Pomerania lost their homes as a result of flight and displacement. Ten million of them arrived in the western zones. As the escape routes ran east-west, East and West Prussia sought refuge, especially in Mecklenburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony.

East Prussian refugees in Lower Saxony encountered a local population to whom they were unwelcome, a collapsed German statehood - and a British occupation regime that tried to ensure the population's food, social and health care and the distribution of housing .

After the Allies took command, refugees were mostly housed in the country and in small towns, where there was no destruction like in the larger cities.

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Someone we know knows refugees who have family there and are sending info, footage and terrible accounts of what people are suffering there. -(J)Buy 17 selection boxes for charity dinner today for homeless & ex homeless lads and ladies and local families who need a helping hand of community

The population in the Lüneburg district increased by 78 percent.

The population of Lower Saxony increased by at least a third. The administrative district of Lüneburg had to cope with the largest influx of all administrative units in the future state of Lower Saxony due to its geographical location. The population there increased by 78 percent by September 1946, based on the population in 1939.

In general, at the end of the war and in the first years of the post-war period, people saw themselves overwhelmed by the flow of displaced Germans from the east. For many, the reception in the West was a shock because of their experienced exclusion and rejection, and even discrimination. One should not be surprised at the tensions, as very different habits and cultures met.

It started with different dialects, sometimes different denominations, different ways of life and behavior and occasionally different values. There was also little knowledge among the residents of the home regions of the new arrivals.

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[Read our current portrait about a Syrian Kurd who is about to graduate from the Brandenburg University of Applied Sciences after fleeing 2014/15: "We no longer felt like refugees" ]

Before and next to the concerns of everyday life Life was concerned with the whereabouts of relatives. Insofar as the fate of Wehrmacht members was unclear, locals and refugees lived with the same uncertainty and fear. For refugees, the fact that families were torn apart made matters worse; Parents had lost their children; the stay of other close relatives was also unknown.

So search services were booming. The post was eagerly awaited to see whether there was finally a sign of life from missing people.

As much as you had to understand the difficult situation of the refugees, the situation of the locals was not easy. They had to accommodate strangers in their apartments and houses, give up rooms and share kitchens and sanitary facilities. Without exaggeration it can be said that there was hardly a house in the village without refugees.

During the last years of the war there had already been an influx of city dwellers, who were evacuated “to the countryside” because of the bombing raids, partly in makeshift homes specially built for the “bombed out” people.

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F. As well as being one of the best cities in the world for eating out (both for its high quality and range), Brussels has a very active and varied nightlife. It has 10 theatres which produce plays in both Dutch and French. There are also dozens of cinemas, numerous discos and many night-time cafes in Brussels.

After the success of Look Back in Anger, Osborne continued to have a highly successful career as playwright. His next play, The Entertainer, was The play is set in a one- room attic apartment in the Midlands of England. This large room is the home of Jimmy Porter, his wife Alison, and his partner

A point of contention: Should the "good rooms" remain free?

Due to the lack of accommodation in the original places of residence, an immediate return was not possible after the end of the war. The scarcity of living space was exacerbated by the fact that many a house, especially if it looked attractive, was “confiscated” and had to be cleared for members of the occupying power.

The result was restrictions for locals and refugees. The newcomers lived in a confined space, mostly with several people in only one room made available for a family, some of them used barracks that were originally built for other purposes, such as for the Reich Labor Service.

[The text is based on a recent publication by George Turner: "What do they want here". Locals and refugees 1945 -49. The example of Ebstorf / Uelzen. Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag, 2019. 52 pages, 12 euros]

The British military government enacted the "Housing Law" in March 1946, which provided the basis for the establishment of local housing offices and committees. Their task was to capture the existing living space and distribute it fairly. As a guideline, a living space of four square meters per person was estimated, half for children up to 14 years.

The local population should only have the same living space as the refugees would be granted. One controversy was whether the “good rooms”, rarely used representative living rooms, should be left. There were no complaints about selfish behavior when locals tried to use pretexts to prevent the assignment of refugees or to make life difficult for them through unacceptable living conditions.

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So it happened that beds were set up in living rooms to identify them as bedrooms or walls were torn down to reduce the number of eligible rooms.

Cornbread and beet syrup - a pleasure denatured forever

Even if a living space could be procured, the supply of fuel was the next problem - followed by the food shortage. The food card system had been used during the war years. Deficiency management continued after the war - for locals and refugees.

The Allied Occupation Powers issued new food stamps in their respective sectors, classified according to the severity of the work in consumer groups. At the end of 1946, the daily ration for normal adult consumers was 1550 calories. That was just 65 percent of what doctors thought was necessary to feed an adult. The "face" of the typical, hungry German was Gert Fröbe in the film "Berliner Ballade" (1948) as a normal consumer.

[As the Tagesspiegel reported on the reconstruction of Berlin after 1945, read here ]

Retailers had to deliver cards to the wholesaler to the extent they had previously received groceries. A loss led them to suspect that they were “pushers” who might have sold goods “black”. The increase in TB cases was attributed not only to poor living conditions, but also to poor nutrition.

Common foods were yellow corn bread in the form of a box and syrup made from sugar beet for breakfast, as well as turnips for lunch, with the result that the enjoyment of these foods was permanently denounced to those affected. Children and adolescents were temporarily saved from malnutrition by school meals. Care packages and the Marshall Plan also alleviated the need. Anyone who believes that it would have been easier to get “daily bread” in rural areas than in the big cities in need, does not appreciate the situation. Especially people from Hamburg traveled on the crowded trains, sometimes on running boards or on roofs, to carry personal items, namely jewelry, silver and porcelain, carpets, but also clothes, books and toys to trade for food, especially potatoes, with them.

For the mass of people, the naked survival in the face of rubble, hunger, housing shortage, flight, waiting for missing relatives and prisoners of war, but also guilt and entanglement stood in the foreground. The uptake and settlement of the uprooted was a long process that required adjustment and change from both sides.

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