Australia Hydroxychloroquine is a poor coronavirus treatment but a perfect parable for our times

16:52  01 august  2020
16:52  01 august  2020 Source:   abc.net.au

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As coronavirus spread in early 2020, the world scrambled for a silver bullet and the antimalarial drug "The hope was it might be somewhat useful," said Derek Lowe, a long- time drug discovery A video promoting hydroxychloroquine as a COVID-19 treatment without evidence went viral this week.

However, articles mentioned by those who support hydroxychloroquine cannot go through the same level of robustness and quality check. Another widely mentioned one was a Google Document made by Zelenko; his original online work does not exist anymore, but a screenshot of what it looked like did

The group had all the trappings of medical authority.

Wearing white coats as they stood with serious faces in front of the US Supreme Court earlier this week, they called themselves "America's Frontline Doctors".

In the video of their press conference, which was livestreamed on Facebook, the group promoted a familiar but controversial narrative: that the drug hydroxychloroquine could help treat COVID-19.

They made their claims despite large scientific studies showing the drug doesn't benefit people hospitalised with the disease.

Covid-19: a Brazilian study finds hydroxychloroquine ineffective

 Covid-19: a Brazilian study finds hydroxychloroquine ineffective Conducted on 667 patients, the study even established that people treated with hydroxychloroquine were exposed to more heart and liver problems. © AFP A box of hydroxychlroquine, used here in the United States, May 20, 2020 Hydroxychloroquine is ineffective against Covid-19 according to a study made public this Thursday in Brazil, where President Jair Bolsonaro, contaminated by disease, yet publicly promotes it.

Hydroxychloroquine helped Covid-19 patients, a study in Detroit found.

Why has hydroxychloroquine come up again? President Trump and his son Donald Trump Jr were among social media users who shared video late on Monday The president said on Tuesday: "I think they're very respected doctors. There was a woman who was spectacular in her statements about it."

The original clip was removed from Facebook but it lived on, with a retweet from US President Donald Trump and a boost on Instagram from celebrities like Madonna. After that, right-wing and conspiratorial online communities — including those in Australia — made a point of keeping the video available online.

Even a transcript of the press conference, on the website of transcription service Rev, has received more than 800,000 interactions on Facebook, according to data from social media monitoring firm Crowdtangle. It has been posted more than 500 times.

The video controversy is only the latest instalment in the saga of hydroxychloroquine's transformation, from relatively obscure anti-malarial drug to political football.

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“Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in First coronavirus vaccine trial set to begin in the US. A test of Chinese patients with a severe case of the novel coronavirus found that the 99 who

Dr Deborah Birx, the White coronavirus task force response coordinator, said hydroxychloroquine may be useful in anecdotal cases but it hasn't been shown to work 'This would be a gift from heaven, this would be a gift from God if it works,' he said. 'We are going to pray to God that it does work.'

It first arrived in the spotlight thanks to widespread press coverage and now, in private Facebook groups and in YouTube comment feeds, hydroxychloroquine is no longer just an unlikely medicine for COVID-19.

To believe in its efficacy is often a way to indicate support for President Trump or an ideological scepticism of the medical establishment, entirely disconnected from the science.

"It's a tenet of faith," said Tom Sear, a fellow with UNSW Canberra Cyber at the Australian Defence Force Academy. "All the scientific evidence is doubtful — and there's Trump with certainty."

Where did the hype come from?

As coronavirus spread in early 2020, the world scrambled for a silver bullet and the antimalarial drug hydroxychloroquine — or HCQ — emerged as an early candidate.

Also used to treat lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, it had shown some promise when used against two previous coronaviruses, SARS and MERS.

Coronavirus: Madonna shocks by approving an

 Coronavirus: Madonna shocks by approving an conspiracy theory Among Madonna's 15 million subscribers, many disagreed over the video shared by the singer. She adhered to the speech advocating hydroxychloroquine as a remedy for the coronavirus, the video was deleted for misinformation. © Frazer Harrison / FilmMagic Invested in political debates and in particular the current crisis which affects the whole world, Madonna shared a video but this time divided Internet users.

Last month, a Chinese study theorized that hydroxychloroquine might work against coronavirus by preventing it from binding to human cells. Federal funding for other coronavirus treatments . Hydroxychloroquine , on the other hand, is an inexpensive generic drug made by several companies

Numerous studies have shown that it is not effective and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently withdrew an order that allowed the drug's use as Mr Trump returned to his earlier advocacy for hydroxychloroquine after returning from a trip to North Carolina, where he promoted efforts to

"The hope was it might be somewhat useful," said Derek Lowe, a long-time drug discovery researcher and author of In the Pipeline, a long-running science blog on the Science Translational Medicine website.

"No-one expected great things out of hydroxychloroquine."

On Facebook, some of the first mentions of the drug as a potential COVID-19 treatment came in mid-February from Chinese media like Xinhua and China Daily but attracted relatively little engagement.

Outside the research community, however, the real attention came after the intervention of a media-savvy French microbiologist named Didier Raoult.

His study, published in the Journal of Antimicrobial Agents in March, tested a combination of hydroxychloroquine and the antibiotic azithromycin on patients with COVID-19 and found that it helped.

But in the eyes of other scientists, the study was decidedly lacklustre. It was small and uncontrolled, which meant there was no group that did not receive the treatment to compare the results against.

But those caveats, and underwhelming results from other trials, ceased to hold much weight in the greater public consciousness after US President Donald Trump weighed in.

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And does hydroxychloroquine even work against the coronavirus ? What is hydroxychloroquine ? Hydroxychloroquine could be bought over the counter and is fairly inexpensive. However, its purchase and use has been severely restricted ever since it was named as

“It might,” he replied, going on to explain that the only way to have “ perfect protection” from the virus is by protecting the eyes, as well as the mouth and nose. “If you have goggles or an eye shield, you should use it,” he said. “It’s not universally recommended, but if you really want to be complete, you

On March 19, Trump said the drug could be a "game changer" at a White House news conference with his coronavirus task force. A few days later, he tweeted a link to Dr Raoult's study. It was retweeted more than 300,000 times.

Since March 1, public posts containing the word "hydroxychloroquine" have received at least 55 million "interactions" on Facebook — a measure that includes reactions, shares or comments.

Other cable news characters emerged as willing soldiers in a burgeoning culture war, such as Dr Vladimir Zelenko, a doctor in upstate New York who claimed to have treated patients with a combination of hydroxychloroquine and other drugs.

And in the months since, President Trump and members of his administration have repeatedly returned to the hydroxychloroquine narrative despite the protests of White House medical advisor Dr Anthony Fauci, who has repeatedly stated that all "valid" scientific data suggests hydroxychloroquine is not effective against COVID-19.

The drug has attracted the attention of populist politicians outside the United States as well.

It's been heavily promoted by Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro, and the drug even became a political instrument in Australia, when erstwhile MP Clive Palmer bought Facebook ads in March, as well as full-page newspaper ads, promoting his proposal to buy "1 million doses" of the drug to support the fight against COVID-19.

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Hydroxychloroquine was seized upon because it offered an appealing narrative, Mr Lowe suggested: a cheap, immediate cure. And if there were naysayers, those were just evil forces at work.

"There was an element of sticking it to the 'big evil' drug companies — 'we're going to use this cheap generic medicine that's been around forever'."

It is a political drug now

Of course, the attraction of a miracle cure is nothing new. But the media and social media platforms can amplify and convert this desire into an article of faith, often tied to politics and identity.

If it were effective, hydroxychloroquine might offer an immediate and individualistic solution that could appeal to those on the right, Mr Sear said, in opposition to more left-leaning values around social responsibility.

"[Hydroxychloroquine is] characterised as a quick fix, a magic cure for the 'problem' of the virus," he said of how the drug is often characterised online.

"It's not a social solution. It doesn't imply we have to work together — and with government — and address larger, more complex, and interrelated issues in society to battle the disease."

Throughout the pandemic, the spruiking of so-called coronavirus "treatments" has been widespread — grifters adapting to the current panic by offering unproven solutions such as colloidal silver.

But hydroxychloroquine is different, according to Elise Thomas, a misinformation researcher at the Australian Strategic Policy Institute.

"The reality is, most of these people have no knowledge of what hydroxychloroquine is," she said.

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"From that angle, it does become more of an article of faith, or more wrapped up into an ideological or political narrative as opposed to being an actual industry that ordinary people can participate in."

George Buchanan, a researcher at the University of Melbourne, has been observing online discussions about COVID-19 on platforms like YouTube and Twitter.

Like Ms Thomas, Dr Buchanan has seen hydroxychloroquine picked up by right-wing and pro-Trump circles on social media. He said it remains one of the most discussed potential treatments online.

"HCQ has been the dominant narrative up to this point."

The failure of hydroxychloroquine to emerge as a usable COVID-19 treatment so far can be seen as many things by such groups. It might be "evidence" of the pharmaceutical industry's backing of alternative drugs, for example, or an excuse by the "deep state" to eventually vaccinate everyone.

Ms Thomas described what she calls "conspiracy collapse", where social media platforms bring together many different kinds of sometimes contradictory conspiracies.

"It's a car crash. It's terrifically messy," she said.

"You look at it at the end, and you can't figure out what started where."

What the HCQ misinformation means for a vaccine

The online obsession with hydroxychloroquine seems unabated — not helped by the media's difficulty in reporting the uncertainty inherent in medical science and drug trials.

Just in the past seven days, Crowdtangle data shows Facebook posts on pages and in public groups mentioning the drug have received more than 12 million interactions. And posts from right-wing figures such as Dan Bongino and Rush Limbaugh about censorship of the treatment have been shared tens of thousands of times.

Thanks in part to social media networks and other online coverage, misinformation and conspiracy theories have periodically flowed from the US and Europe into Australia — at times an "information colony", as Mr Sear put it — and hydroxychloroquine is no exception.

Similar statements of belief in the drug and accusations of cover-ups have been shared widely here in recent days thanks to posts from Australian politicians, wellness influencers and anti-vaccination pages.

Whether or not hydroxychloroquine ever becomes a viable coronavirus drug, the evolution of its online narrative has created a template for how to muddy the narrative around potential treatments, and especially around any potential vaccine.

Mr Lowe predicted there is going to be "a lot of craziness" as the vaccine clinical data starts to emerge.

Ultimately, however, what frustrates him most about the hydroxychloroquine hype is the vast gulf between the appealing narrative it offers and the usual way that medical science advances.

Most of the drugs that scientists develop, Mr Lowe said, for everything from cancer to coronaviruses, simply do not work. They fail.

"There aren't very many miracle drugs."

Liberal MP Craig Kelly said Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews could be jailed for his stance on hydroxychloroquine. An expert says there's 'zero chance' .
In a Facebook post which has since been edited, Liberal backbencher Craig Kelly said Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews could be jailed for 25 years for "continuing to ban hydroxychloroquine". What are the facts?You can read the latest edition below, and to have the next newsletter delivered straight to your inbox.

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