Money: A ball of space mud just pelted Earth—and scientists couldn't be happier - PressFrom - Australia
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MoneyA ball of space mud just pelted Earth—and scientists couldn't be happier

06:00  25 may  2019
06:00  25 may  2019 Source:   popsci.com

Mass movement: scientists adopt new kilogram definition

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"This Ball of Mud and Meanness" is the fourteenth episode of the second season, and 36th episode overall from the FOX series Gotham. The episode was written by Jordan Harper and directed by John Behring. It was first broadcast in March 14, 2016 in FOX.

You're just an insignificant dot on a tiny ball of mud . The effect is the same whether you live for a day or a millennium. After the operators were happy with the reduced bunch spacing , it was then used for collisions.

A ball of space mud just pelted Earth—and scientists couldn't be happier© Photo courtesy of Michael Farmer and Arizona State University In late April, the residents of Aguas Zarcas saw a giant fireball light up the sky as it hurtled towards the ground and broke up into hundreds of pieces, like this one above, in the atmosphere.

We haven’t seen a rock like this in 50 years.

In late April, the residents of Aguas Zarcas saw a giant fireball light up the sky as it hurtled towards the ground and broke up into hundreds of pieces, like this one above, in the atmosphere.

Space science is always about what’s going on ‘out there’. Sometimes, astronomers must pay attention to what’s falling to Earth, too. That’s precisely what Arizona State University’s (ASU) Laurence Garvie is ready to do as he and his team scrutinize an extraterrestrial mud ball that rained down from the heavens last month and landed in a small town in Costa Rica. That’s not a euphemism: We’re talking about a literal mud ball.

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Scientists had thought that Earth gained approximately 0.5 percent of its total mass during this time. These collisions would have had a tremendous impact on Earth 's surface, the chemistry of the primordial atmosphere and may have even had a significant role to play in early biology.

Scientists analysed both common and rare species and found billions of regional or local populations have been lost. They blame human overpopulation and overconsumption for the crisis and warn that it threatens the survival of human civilisation, with just a short window of time in which to act.

In late April, the residents of Aguas Zarcas saw a giant fireball light up the sky as it hurtled towards the ground and broke up into hundreds of pieces in the atmosphere. Within minutes of the fall, local news media reported pieces were falling through the roof of a house at hundreds of miles per hour, destroying a dining room table. “It really arrived with a big bang,” says Garvie.

Early reports showed this meteorite to be a carbonaceous chondrite—which are non-metallic rocks that formed 4.5 billion years ago, back when the solar system was a mere crabby infant. It’s extremely rare for a meteorite like this, so full of clay, to fall down to Earth. “We’ve been waiting for something like this to fall for decades.” says Garvie, a meteorite researcher and curator for ASU’s Center for Meteorite Studies. The last time a rock like this hit Earth was in 1969, in Australia. Others have fallen since, but never yielding more than paltry amounts of extraterrestrial material to study.

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A BIG BALL OF MUD is haphazardly structured, sprawling, sloppy, duct-tape and bailing wire, spaghetti code jungle . Maintaining a shantytown is labor-intensive and requires a broad range of skills. One must be able to improvise repairs with the materials on-hand, and master tasks from roof

In other words: balls of mud held together by mutual gravity, gently convected by the heat produced by the natural decay of radioactive materials. Should this model hold up to further scrutiny, it has obvious implications for the genesis of life on Earth and could impact the study of exoplanets and

Now our planet has been blessedly pelted with another giant mud ball, with an abundant supply of samples available for scientific scrutiny. These sorts of rocks could hold potential clues to the origin of life in the solar system, since they’re chock full of organic compounds that could act as the ingredients for life. The one that fell in 1969, says Garvie, arguably gave birth to the entire field of astrobiology.

The ASU team was able to get in touch with two avid meteorite hunters from Arizona who had traveled out to Costa Rica within a day of the fall to collect pieces of the fireball that broke apart as it torched through the sky. About 55 pounds from the original washing-machine-sized fireball were recovered by meteorite collectors during a lucky five rain-free day streak in the region—critical for preserving clay materials that tend to fall apart very quickly once wet, and thus degrade the unique extraterrestrial properties of the rock. Those hunters donated several samples to Garvie and his team, who were among the first lab’s in the world to begin studying the Aguas Zarcas mud ball.

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This means the Earth is at least 7 miles thick, and probably a lot more so, because that’s a lot of water on top of it and it would need to be solid enough to keep it all in, lest Maybe the world is as thick as it is wide, and is actually a cube? Scientists scoff at this notion, arguing that gravity would mean the

Earth science or geoscience includes all fields of natural science related to the planet Earth. This is a branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the Earth and its atmosphere.

According to Garvie, the mud ball is more than just a random pile of clay zipping through space. It’s a fragment of a larger body that was on its way to growing into a planet. A larger hot aggregate of cosmic material began to cool down, and effectively “fossilized” into a cold rock, disturbed by collisions with smaller rocks but staying largely intact as it orbited around the sun, likely in the asteroid belt. By chance, it was lodged out of its orbit and ended up hurtling into the Earth’s atmosphere and landing in Costa Rica. Quite a journey for a ball of mud, no?

The list of analyses scientists can run on these samples is seemingly endless. They include more conventional work like observations under infrared or UV light, and spectroscopy assays to understand the chemistry of the material. They also include bolder tests—clays often give us a very pungent and specific set of odors when exposed to moisture, and Garvie and his team are setting up tests designed to figure out the origin of those smells and what they too can say about the mud ball’s composition. Other labs are poking away at digging into some of the meteorites metals, and reconciling how the aqueous and metallic compositions could have co-existed for so long.

NASA scientists find Earth-like water in passing comet

NASA scientists find Earth-like water in passing comet Now that's what I call high-quality H2O.

Back in the day, scientists and creative types alike used to believe that a whole different world lived below us. Researchers like Maria Zuber, a geophysics professor at MIT, and Ishii have used evidence from space to support their conclusions about Earth .

Scientists are at a loss to explain a strange seismic event that shook the planet on November 11 and was picked up by earthquake sensors stationed across the The network of islands and islets, located roughly halfway between Africa and Madagascar, is governed by France, but is also claimed by the

While the mud ball’s impact could be key to understanding larger questions about the chemistry of the early solar system, there are also more immediate implications worth investigating. Clays are abundant in water, which raises the specter of potentially mining clay-rich asteroids in space one day for water that’s critical for space travel and exploration. That water could be important for human consumption, growing plants, or potentially used as rocket fuel in novel kinds of spacecraft propulsion systems. “Developing the technologies to heat this material in the asteroid belt, to extract water out, it’s going to be a key point of future space travel,” says Garvie.

The Aguas Zarcas samples are also thought to closely resemble the composition of asteroid Bennu, currently being studied in space by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission, which will eventually return of sample of the asteroid to Earth. This makes the mud ball research a sort of prelude to what we might later find in the following decade when the OSIRIS-REx sample is finally in our hands.

A mud ball doesn’t exactly have the same shiny sparkle as a star, but that doesn’t make it any less exciting for scientists to dig into. “Nature’s done the hard job of creating this material,” says Garvie. “Now it’s up to us to tease this out and investigate the history of where it came from, how did it form, and what it can tell us about the early solar system.”

NASA astronaut captures breathtaking time-lapse of Earth from space.
Here on Earth, we see the Sun rise and set once in any given 24-hour period. If you want to see the sunrise or sunset you need to set your watch so you don't miss it, or you'll be left waiting another day for the opportunity. Things are a whole lot different on the International Space Station. Travelers spending time aboard the orbiting laboratory don’t just have to deal with the lack of gravity and somewhat cramped quarters, they also have to wrestle with the fact that normal “days” don’t really exist when you’re speeding around the Earth over a dozen times per day.

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