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Tech & Science Lithium-ion batteries: Why they're so valuable in high-tech world

16:11  10 october  2019
16:11  10 october  2019 Source:   usatoday.com

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The lithium - ion battery is a technological breakthrough that helped its creators earn the Nobel Prize in Chemistry on Wednesday. Lithium - ion batteries : How they work and why their creators earned a Nobel.

Why lithium - ion batteries are popular. More than that, “ Li -on” batteries offer decent charge times and a high number of discharge cycles before they die. The development of the lithium - ion battery was revolutionary in the tech world , powering devices such as mobile phones and laptops.

Japanese chemist Akira Yoshino poses with a model of a lithium-ion battery during a press conference after winning the 2019 Nobel Chemistry Prize for the development of lithium-ion batteries in Tokyo on October 9, 2019. © KAZUHIRO NOGI/AFP via Getty Images Japanese chemist Akira Yoshino poses with a model of a lithium-ion battery during a press conference after winning the 2019 Nobel Chemistry Prize for the development of lithium-ion batteries in Tokyo on October 9, 2019.

Our smartphones, tablets and laptops would probably be worthless without them.

The lithium-ion battery is a technological breakthrough that helped its creators earn the Nobel Prize in Chemistry on Wednesday.

"They created a rechargeable world," according to a statement from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the presenters of the Nobel.

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The lithium - ion battery is a technological breakthrough that helped its creators earn the Nobel Prize in Chemistry on Wednesday. Lithium - ion batteries : Why they ' re so valuable in high - tech world . 10 uses for the Nobel-prize winning lithium ion battery .

“With the lithium ions , some of them get lost,” explained materials scientist Michael Toney, a researcher at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, near Stanford University. “They get stuck in places where they ’ re not able to shuttle back between the anode and cathode anymore.

The prizes come with a $918,000 cash award, a gold medal and a diploma.

Since entering the market in 1991, lithium-ion batteries have "laid the foundation of a wireless, fossil-fuel-free society, and are of the greatest benefit to humankind," the Nobel committee said in a statement. 

When were lithium-ion batteries created?

Stanley Whittingham, a distinguished professor of chemistry at Binghamton University, created the foundation of the lithium-ion battery in the 1970s during the oil crisis. Although that battery could hold up to 2 volts of energy (most modern batteries are 1.5 volts), it was too explosive to be viable, the Nobel committee said.

In 1980, John B. Goodenough of the University of Texas-Austin, created a component better at handling lithium ions, or charged lithium atoms that have lost one of their three electrons.This led to more powerful batteries. 

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Lithium - ion batteries are highly promising and could bring about a major change in powering the world . Lithium - ion batteries can easily be regarded as the batteries that could potentially change the world . These have become the batteries of choice today in countless consumer electronics and

Lithium - ion batteries have been making this kind of news for years— they ’ve caused fires in Why Li - ion Batteries Explode. Normally, it’s a manufacturing defect, and The next generation of Li - ion batteries will feature more-rugged polymer separators that have a much higher melting point, in case

Five years later, Akira Yoshino of Asahi Kasei Corp. and Meijo University in Japan, created the first commercially viable lithium-ion battery.

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How do they work?

According to the Department of Energy, a lithium-ion battery has an anode and a cathode,  or electric conductors we know as the "-" and "+" ends of a battery, that store lithium; an electrolyte and a separator that help in the distribution of lithium ions through the battery; and collectors for positive and negative electrical currents. 

When a lithium-ion battery discharges, a flow of ions is created from the anode to the cathode, generating power. When you charge the battery, the flow reverses from the cathode to the anode.

A critical piece of modern technology

The development of the lithium-ion battery was revolutionary in the tech world, powering devices such as mobile phones and laptops. The batteries last much longer because users  can recharge them hundreds of times.

"The advantage of lithium-ion batteries is that they are not based upon chemical reactions that break down the electrodes, but upon lithium ions flowing back and forth between the anode and cathode," the committee said.

The batteries have been used to store energy for solar and wind power, which the committee said is critical to moving away from fossil fuels.

One of the big issues with lithium-ion batteries is their tendency to overheat, said the Clean Energy Institute based at the University of Washington. "Because of the risks associated with these batteries, a number of shipping companies refuse to perform bulk shipments of batteries by plane," the CEI said.

The batteries help power electric vehicles

Lithium-ion batteries have become crucial to the deployment of electric vehicles, ranging from the Tesla Model 3 to the Chevrolet Bolt to the Nissan Leaf.

Unlike hybrid cars, which typically use nickel-metal hydride batteries, electric cars use higher-performance lithium-ion batteries. Their high power-to-weight ratio, energy efficiency and temperature control are particularly useful for transportation purposes, according to the Department of Energy.

Although prices have come down significantly, electric vehicles remain more expensive than gasoline-powered cars because of the costs associated with lithium-ion batteries. International Trade Commission analysts projected that electric car costs would fall to the same level as conventional vehicles by 2025 or 2030, according to a report published in December.

In the long term, electric vehicles could graduate to other power storage technologies, such as solid-state batteries or lithium-air batteries, experts said.

Contributing: Nathan Bomey, USA TODAY; The Associated Press

This article originally appeared on USA TODAY: Lithium-ion batteries: Why they're so valuable in high-tech world

Scientist, 97, becomes oldest ever winner of Nobel Prize .
Three scientists have taken home the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, including the oldest ever winner. The trio, John B Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino, share the nine million krona prize (£740,099).© Imagebridge The trio helped to refine and develop lithium-ion batteries Mr Goodenough is the oldest ever winner of a Nobel prize at the age of 97.The three worked together on developing and refining rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, making the age of global information technology, mobile and fossil-fuel free revolutions possible.

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