Tech & Science : Scientists Have Figured Out How to Extract Oxygen From Moon Dirt - - PressFrom - Australia
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Tech & Science Scientists Have Figured Out How to Extract Oxygen From Moon Dirt

17:40  10 october  2019
17:40  10 october  2019 Source:   sciencealert.com

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The Moon is a pretty inhospitable place for humans. It's all dry and dusty, and there's no atmosphere for us to breathe. But there is a bunch of oxygen : The lunar regolith - the crumbly top layer of dirt and rubble on the Moon 's surface - is loaded with it. And now scientists have figured out how to get it

Scientists have developed a method to produce oxygen from moon rock. (PhysOrg.com) -- If humans ever create a lunar base, one of the biggest challenges will be figuring out how to breathe. One idea is extracting oxygen from moon rock. Recently, Derek Fray, a materials chemist from the

a close up of a bench© NASA

The Moon is a pretty inhospitable place for humans. It's all dry and dusty, and there's no atmosphere for us to breathe. But there is a bunch of oxygen: The lunar regolith - the crumbly top layer of dirt and rubble on the Moon's surface - is loaded with it. And now scientists have figured out how to get it out.

The process also doesn't produce waste. On the one hand, you get a bunch of oxygen. On the other, a bunch of metal alloys that it was bound up with. Both of these would be really useful on any future lunar bases or colonies.

Thanks to regolith samples returned from previous lunar missions, we know that oxygen is really quite abundant up there. Between 40 and 45 percent by weight of the regolith is oxygen - by far the most abundant component by weight.

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One idea is extracting oxygen from moon rock. So what happens to Earth after our moon has been depleted so much to make Oxygen that affects our climate? Humans have no clue how to be resourceful.

Scientists Make Oxygen Out of Moon Rock. If humans ever create a lunar base, one of the biggest challenges will be figuring out how to breathe. One idea is extracting oxygen from moon rock. The design is based on a process that the researchers invented in 2000 that produces carbon dioxide.

There's just one big problem.

"This oxygen is an extremely valuable resource, but it is chemically bound in the material as oxides in the form of minerals or glass, and is therefore unavailable for immediate use," said chemist Beth Lomax from the University of Glasgow in Scotland.

a close up of a desert: Moon dust before © left) and after (right) the oxygen extraction. (Beth Lomax/University of Glasgow Moon dust before

Those samples are too valuable to experiment on directly, but having them means we can precisely recreate their consistency using terrestrial materials. This 'fake' lunar dirt is called lunar regolith simulant, and Lomax and her team used it for their research.

There have been previous attempts to extract the oxygen from lunar regolith, such as the chemical reduction of iron oxides using hydrogen to produce water, and then electrolysis to separate the hydrogen from the oxygen in the water; or a similar process with methane instead of hydrogen.

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This week saw one of the most important announcements made in the past decade. Scientists were finally able to conclude that water ice existed on the Moon , and their theory is supported by scientific measurements conducted by three separate instruments.

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But these techniques have either been low-yield, overly complicated, or too hot, requiring such extreme temperatures that the regolith actually melts.

Lomax and colleagues have skipped the chemical reduction step and gone straight to electrolysis of the powdered regolith.

"The processing was performed using a method called molten salt electrolysis. This is the first example of direct powder-to-powder processing of solid lunar regolith simulant that can extract virtually all the oxygen," Lomax explained.

"Alternative methods of lunar oxygen extraction achieve significantly lower yields, or require the regolith to be melted with extreme temperatures of more than 1,600 degrees Celsius (2,900 F)."

First, the regolith is placed in a mesh-lined basket. Calcium chloride - the electrolyte - is added, and the mix is heated to around 950 degrees Celsius, a temperature that doesn't melt the material. Then, an electrical current is applied. This extracts the oxygen, and migrates the salt to an anode, where it can be easily removed.

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Extracting oxygen from the dirt would make a lunar base more self-sufficient and less reliant on oxygen deliveries from Earth. Sponberg says that, ideally, NASA would send an oxygen generator to the Moon well ahead of astronauts, so they would have a supply of freshly made oxygen when they

Scientists can extract trace gases from air by using filters or cooling the air. An air separation unit is often called an oxygen or nitrogen generator, since its purpose is to extract one Carbon dioxide and other trace gases settle out when the temperature reaches each of their sublimation or boiling points.

  Scientists Have Figured Out How to Extract Oxygen From Moon Dirt © Lomax et al., Planetary and Space Science, 2019

It took around 50 hours to extract 96 percent of the oxygen bound up in the regolith sample, but 75 percent of the oxygen lifted in the first 15 hours. Roughly a third of the total oxygen in the sample was detected in off-gas, and the rest was lost, but this is still a vast improvement on the yields of previous techniques.

In addition, the metal left behind is usable - the first time a lunar regolith oxygen extraction technique has produced this result.

"This is the first successful demonstration of solid-state powder-to-powder regolith simulant processing that yields metal alloys as products," the researchers wrote in their paper.

"Furthermore, the clear separation of various alloy phases, and the apparent depletion of other metallic components, introduces the exciting potential for metal/alloy separation and refining from unbeneficiated lunar regolith."

There were three main alloy groups in the by-product, sometimes with small amounts of other metals mixed in: iron-aluminium, iron-silicon, and calcium-silicon-aluminium.

This discovery means the technique could still be valuable even if it turns out that oxygen can be extracted from suspected water ice reserves on the Moon.

"This process would give lunar settlers access to oxygen for fuel and life support, as well as a wide range of metal alloys for in-situ manufacturing," said ESA lunar strategy officer James Carpenter.

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