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Tech & Science This fluffy ball contains the story of the universe

04:51  29 october  2019
04:51  29 october  2019 Source:   popsci.com

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The ghost of a supernova looks like a ball of cotton candy. Scientists have two potential explanations for how the Tycho remnant formed these fluffy balls . The first posits that the explosion was originally round and smooth, and as it expanded, fluid instability (between the particles in space and the matter

' Fluffy Ball ' Supernova Contains the Story of the Universe . Jess Romeo, Popular Science October 30, 2019.

a star in the middle of a clear blue sky: The imprint of an explosive burst as a star goes supernova just before it dies. Scientists use these cosmic fireworks to understand and test theories of supernovae. © NASA/CXC/RIKEN & GSFC/T. Sato et al The imprint of an explosive burst as a star goes supernova just before it dies. Scientists use these cosmic fireworks to understand and test theories of supernovae. More than 10 thousand years ago, a star in our galaxy exploded. The light from this explosion didn't reach Earth until 1572, when the astronomer Tycho Brahe saw a burst of brightness in the night sky and mistook it for a new star being born. We now know that this flare was actually a white dwarf star going supernova—a violently explosive wave of energy and matter that a star emits as it dies. Nearly 500 years later, the imprint of that explosive burst is still visible—and it's very fluffy.

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The story starts with an ocean that sloshes beneath an ice shell. As Enceladus cooled in the distant past, a layer of seawater froze and expanded. Locked underwater by the crust, this expansion pressurized the ocean until, like a glass bottle left too long in the freezer, something had to give.

This Fluffy Ball Contains The Story Of The Universe . More than 10 thousand years ago, a star in our galaxy exploded. Nearly 500 years later, the imprint of that explosive burst is still visible—and it’s very fluffy .

Last week, NASA released the latest image of Tycho's supernova remnant (also called "Tycho"). The photo, taken by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, looks a bit like an opalescent dandelion.

"You look at this image, and it sort of looks like it's cotton candy," says Brian Williams, a NASA astronomer who helped take the latest photograph of the supernova remnant. Scientists use these cosmic fireworks to understand and test theories of supernovae. Currently, astronomers don't know all that much about how supernovae form, Williams adds, or how the the explosion progresses. Further, understanding the mechanism that creates the outburst's distinctive shape— described as "fluffy" and "clumpy"—has been particularly baffling.

Tycho is classified as a Type 1a supernova—it underwent a massive thermonuclear explosion, letting off a shockwave that moved at almost 3,100 miles per second. The wave hit nearby gas and dust, heating the air and particles by millions of degrees. The human eye can’t pick up on any of this action, but the activity shines bright in X-ray photographs (X-rays have higher energy than visible light, and tend to come from extremely hot objects, like black holes, galaxy clusters, and supernovae).

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This Fluffy Ball Contains The Story Of The Universe . More than 10 thousand years ago, a star in our galaxy exploded. Imagine a universe that is pitch black in every direction you look. True nothingness. Even if you open your eyes, the darkness doesn’t change.

This story flashes out some concepts from other, earlier parts of the Vale’s story like a bit of the world’s history and what it means to become more After a weeks of a dry spell Ezraphel has finally completed it, her masterpiece, one of the greatest if not THE greatest spells in all of Mamono history .

This image of Tycho "is visually striking, and also scientifically meaningful," says Gilles Ferrand, a physicist who uses data to build 3D visualizations of supernovae. "It's not the first time we got an image from Tycho. But there's something new in this image that's interesting."

That “new” thing is the blue and red in the center of the photo. Most of the colors in the shot—red, yellow, cyan, navy blue, purple, and orange—represent different energy levels as viewed through the x-ray telescope (red and yellow being the lowest, orange and purple being the highest). In this new photo of Tycho, scientists were also able to isolate and visualize a specific element: silicon—the clumps of blue in the center represent the silicon moving toward us, and the red is the silicon moving away.

Scientists have two potential explanations for how the Tycho remnant formed these fluffy balls. The first posits that the explosion was originally round and smooth, and as it expanded, fluid instability (between the particles in space and the matter from the explosion) caused those misshapen lumpy bits. The second possibility is that it was clumpy from the get-go. In that scenario, the dying star didn’t just undergo one single major explosion, but many. In the first model, the white dwarf is like a nuclear bomb; in the second, it’s like millions of sticks of dynamite.

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This “ fluffy ball ” is a standard part of any sword care kit (see the red ball in the picture below). It contains some sort of powder ‒ I believe And the sword is soul of the warrior, so the bond is natural part of his mind. You can have servant to clean your clothes and to cook your food, but you take care

This fluffy ball is actually a rabbit – the Angora rabbit from which the silky and soft Angora wool is harvested. The Angora rabbit is one of the oldest types of domestic rabbit, believed to have originated from Turkey. The story goes back to the early 18th century, when some sightseeing sailors were put

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Using what Williams called a “complicated image analysis technique,” scientists examined the number of chunks and holes in the image (looking at where they appear, where they don’t, and how big they are). From all of this data, they were able to build a mathematical map of these clumps. When astronomers compared that map to a simulation of a supernova, they discovered that the second option—the millions of sticks of dynamite exploding at once—was more likely.

These clumps are rich in heavy elements like iron and silicon. This makes sense based on what scientists know about how the universe was formed. Initially the expanse was made up only of simple light elements, like hydrogen and helium. Most heavy elements formed inside the stars, synthesized during these supernova explosions. The bursts also sent them flying throughout the galaxy. When the next generations of stars form, they form out of this matter.

“You’ve heard the famous saying ‘We’re all made of stardust’?” says Williams. “That’s literally what you’re seeing right here.”

New Research Suggests the Universe May Be a Giant Loop .
New research suggests our universe may actually be a closed loop instead of a never-ending expanse, but the theory has drawn criticism from other cosmologists. A review of data from the European Space Agency’s Planck Experiment revealed significantly more instances of gravitational lensing of the microwave light that makes up cosmic background radiation than expected. This is particularly puzzling, because scientists aren’t currently able to explain how gravity would be able to bend this much microwave light.

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