Tech & Science : A virus from the measles family is spreading because of melting ice. It kills seals and otters by the thousands. - - PressFrom - Australia
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Tech & Science A virus from the measles family is spreading because of melting ice. It kills seals and otters by the thousands.

18:40  07 november  2019
18:40  07 november  2019 Source:   businessinsider.com.au

Infection amnesia: Measles 'destroys immune system memory'

  Infection amnesia: Measles 'destroys immune system memory' Infection amnesia: Measles 'destroys immune system memory'LONDON, Oct 31 (Reuters) - Getting measles is even more dangerous than doctors had realized, because it destroys immunity that the victim has acquired to other diseases, researchers said on Thursday.

A virus from the measles family is spreading because of melting ice . It kills seals and otters by the thousands . As rising temperatures cause Arctic ice to melt , a deadly virus may have taken advantage of the change and hopped from from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

Measles is a viral disease that can spread rapidly. If you want to buy vitamin A supplements, then there is an excellent selection online with thousands of customer reviews. Antibiotics will not help against the measles virus , but they may sometimes be prescribed if an additional bacterial infection

  • As the planet warms, the average extent of Arctic sea ice is decreasing.
  • According to a new study, that disappearance of Arctic sea ice has enabled a deadly virus to spread among seal and otter populations in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.
  • This disease, called the phocine distemper virus, used to be limited to the Atlantic Ocean. But as pathways through polar waterways opened, disease-carrying animals transported it to the Pacific.
  • Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories.

As rising temperatures cause Arctic ice to melt, a deadly virus may have taken advantage of the change and hopped from from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.

Measles vaccines protect against more than just measles. Here's how.

  Measles vaccines protect against more than just measles. Here's how. Without vaccination, the highly contagious virus can allow other diseases to flourish in unsuspecting populations for more than two years after an infection.Measles is alarmingly contagious: It’s spread through the air and can linger in a room for up to two hours after an infected person has left. The disease is responsible for more than a hundred thousand deaths each year among unvaccinated people.

Those people later developed measles , and may have spread the virus to others. By the end of January, the Disneyland outbreak had reached 94 This strategy also means that measles vaccines can be extremely effective. By teaching people’s immune systems what the measles virus looks like

There is no medicine that kills the measles virus once someone develops measles . Measles is a very contagious viral disease that is spread through the air from person to person. The measles virus can also float in the air for up to one hour after someone with measles has coughed or sneezed.

Phocine distemper virus (PDV) is essentially the seal version of measles (dogs, similarly, can get the canine distemper virus). The virus' range appeared to be limited to the Atlantic Ocean until 2004, when an outbreak occurred amid northern sea otters in the Alaskan Pacific.

That left scientists baffled as to how the once-isolated disease made its way across the world.

A study published today in the journal Scientific Reports offers an answer: Over the past 15 years, the authors found, melting ice opened up previously clogged pathways through the Arctic Circle. That enabled PDV-carrying animals to transport the virus more regularly between the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans.

"We went back and looked at what ice was doing, and the biggest opening in sea ice to date had occurred in 2002," Tracey Goldstein, the senior author of the study, told Business Insider. "It was a perfect-storm combination: In August and September of 2002 there was a bad outbreak in north Atlantic harbour seals. And September was also when ice extent was lowest, which led to the spread."

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  Takeda's dengue vaccine effective overall in study but with major limitation November 7, 2019. A dusty haze reaches across Sydney's skies as a trough moving east across NSW moves dust from the state's west. (AAP Video/Tiffanie Turnbull).

Measles is a highly contagious virus that lives in the nose and throat mucus of an infected person. Also, measles virus can live for up to two hours in an airspace where the infected person coughed or sneezed. If other people breathe the contaminated air or touch the infected surface, then touch their

That makes sense too, because the measles virus , unlike influenza, is monotypic. There is only one main type of measles virus , despite the many small changes in the virus that can help us identify different strains and genotypes. 25% of the 125 cases in CA were caused by the vaccine.

PDV outbreaks coincided with reductions in Arctic sea ice

Every September, Arctic sea ice hits its minimum extent. Since the 1980s, that minimum has decreased by about 13% per decade, and the decline is accelerating because the Arctic is warming twice as fast as the rest of the planet.

In 1979, Arctic sea ice covered about 2.7 million square miles (7 million square kilometers). By last month, the extent had dropped to 1.7 million square miles (4.3 million square kilometers).Researchers at the European Space Agency have warned that we could see an ice-free Arctic in just decades.

Less sea ice means more open ocean pathways criss-crossing the Arctic. Ships take advantage of these routes to cut travel time; Canada's Northwest Passage is one example of such a pathway.

Marine mammals, it seems, also use these channels to bop between oceans.

To investigate PDV outbreaks, the researchers behind the new study examined blood and genetic data samples collected from 2,530 live and 165 dead mammals - including seals, sea lions, and sea otters - between 2001 and 2016.

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Measles is a childhood infection caused by a virus . Once quite common, measles can now almost always be prevented with a vaccine. Also called rubeola, measles can be serious and even fatal for small children. While death rates have been falling worldwide as more children receive the measles

Measles is caused by a virus in the paramyxovirus family and it is normally passed through direct contact and through the air. Measles is one of the world’s most contagious diseases. It is spread by coughing and sneezing, close personal contact or direct contact with infected nasal or throat secretions.

The results suggested that the first Pacific Ocean outbreak of PDV occurred in sea otters near Alaska's Aleutian Islands in 2003 and 2004, with over 30% of those animals testing positive for the virus at the time. That was followed by a second spike in infection rates in 2009.

a brown bear swimming in the water: Two northern sea otters swim in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska, June 12, 2013. Two northern sea otters swim in Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska, June 12, 2013.

Goldstein's data suggested that the mammals sampled in 2004 and 2009 were nine times more likely to be infected with the virus than animals in other years. An analysis of satellite imagery from those time periods revealed that in the years preceding the two outbreaks - 2002 and 2008 - open water routes were visible between the north Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

The authors think the reductions in the Arctic sea ice extent likely facilitated contact between species that had previously been kept separate. As mammals interacted in new ways, the PDV virus spread.

PDV outbreaks have killed tens of thousands of seals

Goldstein's team thinks the virus-carrying animals could have moved from the Atlantic to the Pacific in two ways: either by hugging the northern Russian coast and heading east, or swimming west along the coast and islands of northern Canada.

Arctic critters are sneezing on each other like never before

  Arctic critters are sneezing on each other like never before Arctic critters are sneezing on each other like never beforeThe study started with something unexpected. Back in 2004, researchers observed phocine distemper virus—a highly contagious disease related to measles and canine distemper—in a population of North Pacific sea otters. Until that moment, says marine animal health researcher Tracey Goldstein, she and her team thought PDV was confined to the Atlantic. But they knew a population of North Atlantic harbor seals had suffered an outbreak two years earlier, and suspected there might be a connection.

Measles is a dangerous, contagious disease with no treatment or cure. So you could easily spread the virus without knowing you have it . If you do get the measles virus , medicine won’t cure it (drugs don’t kill viruses ). The best way to speed up the recovery process and prevent complications is to

What causes measles ? Measles is caused by a virus . How does measles spread ? Immune globulin (a blood product containing antibodies to the measles virus ) may prevent or lessen the • p eople who received inactivated ( killed ) measles vaccine or measles vaccine of unknown type during

a bird that is standing in the snow: Steller sea lions rest on ice. Steller sea lions rest on ice.

PDV spreads via respiratory fluids when animals are in close contact on land or in the ocean. Many species of seals and otters are susceptible, though to varying degrees. Harbour seals are by far the most vulnerable: a 1988 epidemic in the Atlantic killed 23,000 seals, while more than 30,000 perished during the 2002 outbreak.

Afflicted animals get fevers and lung infections, according to a December 2014 study. Mucus drips from their eyes and nostrils, and they're prone to seizures that can prevent them from diving or swimming.

"They get sick very quickly," Goldstein said. "The virus could kill a harbour seal within one to two weeks."

Just last year, up to 1,000 harbour and grey seals died on the New England coast from the disease.

Other seal species are less affected by the virus; some can carry PDV without getting sick, and pass it along to other animals. Harp seals in the Atlantic may have been the original source of PDV, the study authors wrote. Then other species like ringed and bearded seals may have picked it up and transported it to the Pacific, where species like Steller sea lions, northern fur seals, and northern sea otters got infected.

"I didn't expect to find this many PDV-positive animals in so many species," Goldstein said. "I think were really now just learning the species range that PDV distemper can infect."

The virus could spread south

a dog lying on the snow: An adult male ribbon seal lays on the Arctic ice. An adult male ribbon seal lays on the Arctic ice.

PDV-positive mammals have been found along eastern Russia and Japan's Hokkaido coast, but Goldstein doesn't think the virus would ever spread south of the equator.

Pinnipeds, a category of animals that includes seals and walruses, prefer cooler seas.

"Pinnipeds don't tend to go into tropical waters, so we wouldn't see infected animals in, say, southeast Asia," she said.

However, Goldstein added that the virus could makes its way south via migrating harbour seals to the shores of northern California.

Samoa declares state of emergency as measles outbreak claims lives .
Samoa's Government orders all schools closed and declares a state of emergency as a deadly measles outbreak continues to spread. Since Samoan officials announced a measles epidemic in October, seven suspected measles-related deaths have been recorded. The majority of cases have involved children younger than four years old.The Samoan Government ordered children under the age of 17 not to attend public gatherings in an attempt to stop the virus spreading.It also made vaccinations a mandatory legal requirement for all people of Samoa who have not yet received a vaccination injection.

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