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Tech & Science Arctic critters are sneezing on each other like never before

05:55  08 november  2019
05:55  08 november  2019 Source:   popsci.com

Russia is finding new islands in the Arctic, while the US is still trying to figure out how to get up there

  Russia is finding new islands in the Arctic, while the US is still trying to figure out how to get up there Russian explorers recently mapped five new Arctic islands that have appeared as ice recedes and interest grows in expanded shipping, resource extraction, and military operations in the region. Russia, as a major Arctic power, has been increasing its military presence there, while the US is still looking for ways to get into the high north. Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories. Russia, already the owner of the world's longest Arctic coastline, has spent the past few years bolstering its presence there.

Causes of Sneezing . Sneezing and Other Symptoms. However, if your cat’s sneezing won’t go away, or if other symptoms have cropped up along with sneezing , you may need to check with your veterinarian to see if treatment is needed.

each others ) in phrases like “to hold each other ’s hand(s)”. Long story short, the correct spelling is the one used in the previous example, i.e. each In the case of “ each other ”, “ other ” is in the singular because it follows “ each ”—you wouldn’t say “ each teachers” instead of “ each teacher”, would you…

a polar bear swimming in a body of water: Arctic otters are facing new pathogens, but this is just the beginning.© DepositPhotos Arctic otters are facing new pathogens, but this is just the beginning.

Although we know that a warming Arctic is bad for the creatures who rely on its ice, this region—which is heating up three times faster than the rest of the planet—is still poorly understood. A new study from the University of California, Davis, sheds some light on one way melting sea ice is bad for Arctic mammals: It helps them spread their germs to exotic new locations.

The study started with something unexpected. Back in 2004, researchers observed phocine distemper virus—a highly contagious disease related to measles and canine distemper—in a population of North Pacific sea otters. Until that moment, says marine animal health researcher Tracey Goldstein, she and her team thought PDV was confined to the Atlantic. But they knew a population of North Atlantic harbor seals had suffered an outbreak two years earlier, and suspected there might be a connection.

A virus from the measles family is spreading because of melting ice. It kills seals and otters by the thousands.

  A virus from the measles family is spreading because of melting ice. It kills seals and otters by the thousands. As the planet warms, the average extent of Arctic sea ice is decreasing. According to a new study, that disappearance of Arctic sea ice has enabled a deadly virus to spread among seal and otter populations in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. This disease, called the phocine distemper virus, used to be limited to the Atlantic Ocean. But as pathways through polar waterways opened, disease-carrying animals transported it to the Pacific. Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories.

[Chorus] And your pastimes consisted of the strange And twisted and deranged And I hate that little game you had called Crying Lightning And how you'd like to aggravate the icky man on rainy afternoons Uninviting, but not half as impossible as everyone assumes you are Crying Lightning.

Just like humans, rats do sneeze on occasion. However, rattling and wheezing is a very serious issue that could become life threatening quickly. Does Sneezing Mean My Rat Has Allergies? In some cases, rats do develop allergies. You might notice that your rat goes into sneezing fits at different times.

“We were wondering if contact between animals that hadn’t been possible before might have been able to move the virus down into the Pacific,” she says.

To explore that question, her team looked at sampling data for multiple species of sea otters, sea lions, and seals in both regions between 2001 and 2016. They analyzed the sampling data, which noted whether the animals had been exposed to or infected with PDV, alongside satellite information on population distribution. They identified widespread PDV exposure and infection among North Pacific animals that peaked in 2003 and again in 2009.

Those peaks coincided with years that saw especially low sea ice formation in the Arctic Ocean. Normally, the ice creates a barrier between the northern reaches of the Atlantic and Pacific, dividing the two bodies of water. But during the two years in question, there were openings large enough for a determined animal—and perhaps their pathogens—to swim through. “It was sort of a perfect storm, because at the end of 2002, around August and September, there was a large outbreak of distemper virus among harbor seals in the North Atlantic,” says Goldstein. September is when sea ice reaches its lowest point for the year, she says.

Speed limits for ships can have 'massive' benefits

  Speed limits for ships can have 'massive' benefits Cutting the speed of ships by 20% can benefit health, protect whales and limit warming, say campaigners.A 20% reduction would cut greenhouse gases but also curb pollutants that damage human health such as black carbon and nitrogen oxides.

Thanks to global warming, the ice in the Arctic Ocean is today about half of what it was in the 1980's. Given that the situation can only get worse and governments are unable to come to a consensus about how to reverse the trend

In temperature and politics, the Arctic has never been hotter. As other nations try to get in on the action, Canada is gearing up for a fight.

Most researchers think that PDV is passed from animal to animal much like measles jumps from person to person—in droplets sprayed from the mouth and nose. “A lot of the transmission occurs when they all pull out onto rocks or bits of land,” says Cornell University marine biologist Drew Harvell. “That’s when the respiratory droplets that transmit the virus can be transmitted.”

PDV is extremely dangerous for harbor seals, killing up to half the animals it infects. Other species have a much lower mortality rate, says Goldstein, but it’s a disease that can strike many sorts of animals. Little is known yet about how North Pacific species fare during an outbreak, and there’s a lot more still to know about why the disease seems to peak in certain years. She suspects it might have to do with sea ice and perhaps with herd immunity, which wears out as members of the herd die of old age and are replaced by those who haven’t already been exposed to the virus.

Regardless of how it’s happening, Harvell says, it’s cause for concern. “PDV is a bad one, because it’s a multi-host pathogen,” she says. And it could be just one of many new biological threats carried by our fast-changing seas.

Samoa declares state of emergency as measles outbreak claims lives .
Samoa's Government orders all schools closed and declares a state of emergency as a deadly measles outbreak continues to spread. Since Samoan officials announced a measles epidemic in October, seven suspected measles-related deaths have been recorded. The majority of cases have involved children younger than four years old.The Samoan Government ordered children under the age of 17 not to attend public gatherings in an attempt to stop the virus spreading.It also made vaccinations a mandatory legal requirement for all people of Samoa who have not yet received a vaccination injection.

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