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Tech & Science Nobel Prize In Physics For Two Breakthroughs: Evidence For The Big Bang And A Way To Find Exoplanets

06:20  22 november  2019
06:20  22 november  2019 Source:   gizmodo.com.au

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Did the universe really begin with a Big Bang ? And if so, is there evidence ? Are there planets around other stars? Can they support life? The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics goes to three scientists who have provided deep insights into all of these questions.

The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics goes to three scientists who have provided deep insights into the Big Bang . This image provided by the Illustris Collaboration in May 2014 shows light distribution of a massive cluster in a simulation of the evolution of the universe since the Big Bang .

Artist’s rendering of a Jupiter-sized exoplanet and its host, a star slightly more massive than our sun. (Image: ESO/NASA) Artist’s rendering of a Jupiter-sized exoplanet and its host, a star slightly more massive than our sun. (Image: ESO/NASA)

Did the universe really begin with a Big Bang? And if so, is there evidence? Are there planets around other stars? Can they support life?

The 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics goes to three scientists who have provided deep insights into all of these questions.

James Peebles, an emeritus professor of physics at Princeton University, won half the prize for a body of work he completed since the 1960s, when he and a team of physicists at Princeton attempted to detect the remnant radiation of the dense, hot ball of gas at the beginning of the universe: the Bang Bang.

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On Tuesday, the Nobel Prize Committee awarded the physics prize to three researchers whose scientific discoveries have framed this cosmic Other researchers used his insights to find evidence of the Big Bang in fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background—the faint ubiquitous glow that is

“This year’s Nobel laureates in physics have painted a picture of a universe far stranger and more wonderful She had been considered a leading candidate for the physics prize before her death in 2016 “His work ranged from the big bang to quantum mechanics to the true nature of dark matter. The vast majority of exoplanets discovered in the past two decades are unlike any body in our own

The other half went to Michel Mayor, an emeritus professor of physics from the University of Geneva, together with Didier Queloz, also a Swiss astrophysicist at the University of Geneva and the University of Cambridge. Both made breakthroughs with the discovery of the first planets orbiting other stars, also known as exoplanets, beyond our solar system.

I am an astrophysicist and was delighted to hear of this year’s Nobel recipients, who had a profound impact on scientists’ understanding of the universe. A lot of my own work on exploding stars is guided by theories describing the structure of the universe that James Peebles himself laid down.

In fact, one might say that Peebles, of all this year’s Nobel winners, is the biggest star of the real “Big Bang Theory.”

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The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded 113 times to 213 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2019. Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz “ for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star”.

Nobel Prize in Physics for two breakthroughs : Evidence for the Big Bang and a way to find exoplanets . Thanks to Moore’s law and a number of developments in physics , chemistry, computer science and mathematics over the past 50 years (leading to Nobel Prizes in Chemistry in 1998 and

Jim Peebles, Didier Queloz, Michel Mayor are posing for a picture: This combination of Oct. 8, 2019, photos shows the Nobel Prize winners in Physics, from left, James Peebles in Princeton, N.J., Didier Queloz in London and Michel Mayor in Madrid. Peebles, an emeritus professor at Princeton University, won for his theoretical discoveries in cosmology. Swiss star-gazers Mayor, and Queloz, both of the University of Geneva, were honored for finding an exoplanet — a planet outside our solar system — that orbits a sun-like star, the Nobel committee said. (AP Photo) This combination of Oct. 8, 2019, photos shows the Nobel Prize winners in Physics, from left, James Peebles in Princeton, N.J., Didier Queloz in London and Michel Mayor in Madrid. Peebles, an emeritus professor at Princeton University, won for his theoretical discoveries in cosmology. Swiss star-gazers Mayor, and Queloz, both of the University of Geneva, were honored for finding an exoplanet — a planet outside our solar system — that orbits a sun-like star, the Nobel committee said. (AP Photo)

The real Big Bang Theory

As Peebles and his Princeton team rushed to complete their discovery in 1964, they were scooped by two young scientists at nearby Bell Labs, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson. The remaining radiation from the Big Bang was predicted to be microwave energy, in much the same form used by countertop ovens.

It was a serendipitous finding because Penzias and Wilson had constructed an antenna to detect this microwave radiation which was used in satellite communications. But they were mystified by a persistent source of noise in their measurements, like the fuzz of a radio tuned between stations.

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To cite this section MLA style: The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. NobelPrize .org. Nobel Media AB 2019. Nobel Prizes 2019. Fifteen laureates have been awarded this year, for achievements that have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.

Nobel Prize in Physics for two breakthroughs : Evidence for the Big Bang and a way to find exoplanets . Nobel Prize in Chemistry In the past, the very formal multi-course dinner (complete with speeches and toasts) has been broken up by performances from ballet groups and opera ensembles.

Penzias and Wilson talked to Peebles and his colleagues and learned that this static they were hearing was the radiation left over from the Big Bang itself. Penzias and Wilson won the Nobel Prize in 1978 for their discovery, though Peebles and his team provided the crucial interpretation.

Peebles has also made decades of pivotal contributions to the study of the matter which pervades the cosmos but is invisible to telescopes, known as dark matter, and the equally mysterious energy of empty space, known as dark energy. He has done foundational work on the formation of galaxies, as well as to how the Big Bang gave rise to the first elements – hydrogen, helium, lithium – on the periodic table.

a screenshot of a cell phone: First discovery of an exoplanet just earned the Nobel Prize for Physics. (Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech) First discovery of an exoplanet just earned the Nobel Prize for Physics. (Image: NASA/JPL-Caltech)

Finding planets beyond our solar system

For their Nobel Prize-winning work, Mayor and Queloz carried out a survey of nearby stars using a custom-built instrument. Using this instrument, they could detect the wobble of a star – a sign that it is being tugged by the gravity of an orbiting exoplanet.

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Nobel Prize winners by category ( physics ). work on the atomic nucleus that paved the way for nuclear fusion. Mottelson, Ben R. Denmark. discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation, providing support for the big - bang theory. experiments regarding the two -dimensional material graphene.

— Robert T. Fisher, The Conversation, " Nobel Prize in Physics for two breakthroughs : Evidence for the Big Bang and a way to find exoplanets ," 8 Oct. 2019 Judging by their sizes and temperatures, many of these exoplanets could be capable of supporting life.

In 1995, in a landmark discovery published in the journal Nature, they found a star in the constellation Pegasus rapidly wobbling across the sky, in response to an unseen planet with half the mass of Jupiter. This exoplanet, dubbed 51 Pegasi b, orbits close to its central star, well within the orbit of Mercury in our own solar system, and completes one full orbit in just four days.

This surprising discovery of a “hot Jupiter,” quite unlike any planet in our own solar system, excited the astrophysical community and inspired many other research groups, including the Kepler space telescope team, to search for exoplanets.

These groups are using both the same wobble detection method as well as new methods, such as looking for light dips caused by exoplanets passing over nearby stars. Thanks to these research efforts, more than 4,000 exoplanets have now been discovered.

Robert T. FisherUniversity of Massachusetts Dartmouth

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

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