Tech & Science The Pure Chaos of Magnetic Fields May Explain The Intense Shine of Black Holes

09:50  04 december  2019
09:50  04 december  2019 Source:   sciencealert.com

Three Black Hole Big Bois Are Heading For A Galactic Smackdown

  Three Black Hole Big Bois Are Heading For A Galactic Smackdown In a galaxy far, far away, three black holes are racing towards each other. The galaxy is called NGC 6240 and it's around 300 million light-years away but is still considered a neighbour more or less. While it had been thought only two supermassive black holes existed within it for decades, a third one has been found, according to researchers from the University of Göttingen.The findings were made with a powerful telescope, the MUSE 3D spectrograph, located in Chile's European Southern Observatory. They observed the three black hole big bois had a mass of more than 90 million Suns.

These magnetic fields could be helping power the black hole hidden in the galaxy’s core by confining the dust in the torus and keeping it close enough to The unified model, which attempts to explain the different properties of active galaxies, states that the core is surrounded by a donut-shaped dust cloud

During the formation of a black hole , a bright burst of very energetic light in the form of gamma rays The physics behind this phenomenon includes many of the least understood fields within physics Is the black hole birth environment organized or chaotic ? How and where the gamma rays are

  The Pure Chaos of Magnetic Fields May Explain The Intense Shine of Black Holes © Comisso & Sironi, The Astrophysical Journal, 2019

There's some irony in the fact that the darkest objects in the sky - black holes - can be responsible for some of the Universe's brightest light. Simulations of the magnetic fields surrounding black holes and neutron stars have now provided new insights into their astonishing brilliance.

Astrophysicists from Columbia University in New York have developed a model that shows how electrons taking a cosmic roller coaster-ride through magnetic turbulence can generate surprisingly energetic waves of radiation.

Applied to the swirling chaos surrounding dense objects such as black holes, it helps to explain why we see them glow with a ferocity that so far defies explanation.

New Type Of Star System? Mysterious Radio Signal Puzzles Astronomers

  New Type Of Star System? Mysterious Radio Signal Puzzles Astronomers After observing a part of the sky near the Southern Constellation of Ara for about two months using MeerKAT, a radio telescope based in the Karoo desert in South Africa, our team of scientists noticed something strange. The radio emission of an object brightened by a factor of three over roughly three weeks. Intrigued, we continued watching the object and followed this up with observations from other telescopes. We discovered that the unusual flare came from a binary star system – two stars orbiting each other – in our own galaxy.

And yet, we hear of black holes shining so brightly we can see them halfway across the Universe. All this spinning generates powerful magnetic fields around the black hole , which focuses jets of Has anyone looked into the possibility of a partial-EU solution that might eliminate the need for dark

Supermassive black holes may be the result of hundreds or thousands of tiny black holes that merge together. Large gas clouds could also be responsible, collapsing together and rapidly accreting mass. A third option is the collapse of a stellar cluster, a group of stars all falling together.

There's no argument that at least some of that luminosity is from particles being whipped into a heated frenzy in the disk of gas and dust spiralling in to their doom.

Charged particles in that swirling debris can also generate some seriously mad magnetic fields, channelling material into jets that eject particles light years into space, at speeds that cause them to glow with hard electromagnetic radiation.

New Type Of Star System? Mysterious Radio Signal Puzzles Astronomers

  New Type Of Star System? Mysterious Radio Signal Puzzles Astronomers Sky News contributor Adam Creighton says he is

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting gravitational acceleration so strong that nothing—no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from it.

Most famously, black holes were predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity, which showed that when a massive star dies, it leaves behind a small, dense remnant Scientists can't directly observe black holes with telescopes that detect x-rays, light, or other forms of electromagnetic radiation.

But amid the spectrum of photons emitted from the space around some black holes and neutron stars are waves that can't easily be explained. They're too energetic to be thermal, and don't seem to come from zones where gas and dust is being channelled.

That's not to say there aren't other ways matter can't be accelerated to the kinds of speeds that would emit the right level of electromagnetic radiation.

Thousands of Strange Planets Could Be Orbiting Each Supermassive Black Hole Out There

  Thousands of Strange Planets Could Be Orbiting Each Supermassive Black Hole Out There In the immediate vicinity of a supermassive black hole's event horizon, conditions are pretty wild. But travel a little farther out, and other objects can be snared in its gravitational influence - like the stars orbiting the supermassive black hole at the centre of our galaxy, Sagittarius A*. According to a new paper, it's not just stars. There could be oodles of planets orbiting supermassive black holes, caught in their gravitational hold, but far out beyond immediate danger - up to tens of light-years away. require(["inlineoutstreamAd", "c.

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to black holes : Black hole – mathematically defined region of spacetime exhibiting such a strong gravitational pull that no particle or electromagnetic radiation can escape from inside it.

More information: Sanjay Kumar et al, Chaotic magnetic field lines and spontaneous development of current sheets, Physics of Plasmas (2017). Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission.

"Turbulence and magnetic reconnection – a process in which magnetic field lines tear and rapidly reconnect – conspire together to accelerate particles, boosting them to velocities that approach the speed of light," says one of the study's two researchers, Luca Comisso.

If you think about the neat rows of lines that appear when you sprinkle iron filings around a permanent magnet, magnetic fields are like laneways for charged particles.

Move those magnets around in a wild, unpredictable fashion, and those electron roads will disconnect and reconnect with one another, turning a leisurely drive into a theme park ride from hell.

The chaos of turbulent magnetic fields around our own planet has helped to explain a bunch of astrophysical phenomena in the past, such as where the energy of high speed electrons goes when they collide with our magnetosphere.

"It is thanks to the electric field induced by reconnection and turbulence that particles are accelerated to the most extreme energies, much higher than in the most powerful accelerators on Earth, like the Large Hadron Collider at CERN," says Comisso.

Chinese astronomers discovered a black hole so big it shouldn't exist according to current science

  Chinese astronomers discovered a black hole so big it shouldn't exist according to current science Chinese scientists discovered a stellar black hole that's so large it shouldn't exist based on current theories of black hole formation. LB-1 is 70 times greater than the mass of our sun, but scientists had believed that stellar black holes in our galaxy could not be bigger than 20 times the mass of the sun. The head of the team that made the discovery said that: "Black holes of such mass should not even exist in our Galaxy, according to most of the current models of stellar evolution." Prof. David Reitze of the University of Florida said: "This discovery forces us to re-examine our models of how stellar-mass black holes form.

The black hole itself is black . No light can escape from it. But the area around the hole can be The new data also help to explain how such black holes can wreak havoc of a kind that is visible from Intense gravity on the star’s surface should slow the vibration of light waves, stretching them and

The cores of galaxies contain supermassive black holes , containing hundreds of millions of times the mass of Sun. The theorists expected that the region inside the acceleration region would follow a corkscrew-shaped path inside the twisting magnetic fields .

Given the success turbulence has had elsewhere, it's a tempting idea to explore when it comes to the high energy physics produced by black holes. The only problem is the unpredictable writhing of turbulent magnetic fields isn't exactly the easiest thing to model mathematically.

To simplify the task, the researchers broke down the busy movements of particles in a plasma into units that can be more easily calculated.

"We used the most precise technique – the particle-in-cell method – for calculating the trajectories of hundreds of billions of charged particles that self-consistently dictate the electromagnetic fields," says Comisso's colleague, Lorenzo Sironi.

"And it is this electromagnetic field that tells them how to move."

Their results showed how electrons whipping back and forth through restless magnetic spaghetti could potentially generate the energies required for radiation well beyond what heat could generate alone.

Most of that extra energy, they showed, comes from random movements at extremely high speeds. As the charged particles curve, they emit powerful waves of electromagnetic radiation.

"This is indeed the radiation emitted around black holes and neutron stars that make them shine, a phenomenon we can observe on Earth," says Sironi.

One of the stranger objects in our Universe is the dense remains of a supernova at the centre of the Crab Nebula. Physicists have been curious about its high speed electrons for some time.

The two researchers now plan to apply their results directly to the nebula's spectrum, in an effort to show how this enigma might be explained by turbulence alone.

"We figured out an important connection between turbulence and magnetic reconnection for accelerating particles, but there is still so much work to be done," says Comisso.

This research was published in The Astrophysical Journal.

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