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Tech & Science This Locked Cabinet Holds The Answer To One Of The Biggest Questions In Particle Physics

18:05  25 january  2020
18:05  25 january  2020 Source:   gizmodo.com.au

Antarctic Experiment Reveals Strange 'Ghost' Particles That Physicists Can't Explain

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With the help of computer simulations, particle physics researchers may be able to explain why there is more matter than antimatter in the Universe. The simulations offer a new way of examining conditions after the Big Bang, and could provide answers to some fundamental questions in particle physics .

Particle physics had relatively simple origins, beginning with the study of natural sources of New questions emerged, and newer and more powerful instruments were developed to answer them. In the 1920s, physicists began studying the properties and behaviors of particles , in part to understand

a close up of a box: The cabinet door hiding the readout from a secret clock system. (Photo: Ryan F. Mandelbaum)© Photo: Ryan F. Mandelbaum The cabinet door hiding the readout from a secret clock system. (Photo: Ryan F. Mandelbaum)

A 50-foot ring topped with white insulation sits attached to wires, pipes, and other electrical components in a warehouse on Fermilab’s northern Illinois campus. Scientists taking data with this device have the potential to rock the field of particle physics to its core, but they’re missing a crucial number to make their final calculation: the ticking speed of a clock that’s kept in a back room hidden in a locked compartment. Today, only two people know this value, and they keep it in hidden envelopes. They’re not telling anyone what it is.

'Remarkable' Mathematical Proof Describes How To Solve Seemingly Impossible Computing Problem

  'Remarkable' Mathematical Proof Describes How To Solve Seemingly Impossible Computing Problem You enter a cave. At the end of a dark corridor, you encounter a pair of sealed chambers. Inside each chamber is an all-knowing wizard. The prophecy says that with these oracles’ help, you can learn the answers to unanswerable problems. But there’s a catch: The oracles don’t always tell the truth. And though they cannot communicate with each other, their seemingly random responses to your questions are actually connected by the very fabric of the universe. To get the answer you seek, you must first devise... the questions. Computer scientists are buzzing about a new mathematical proof that proposes a quantum-entangled system sort of like the one described above.

Experiments designed to answer that question in a roundabout way, like the “There are hints of new physics but there is no indication that this would lead to a solution of the matter-antimatter This is still particle physics , and there are truckloads of data waiting to be analyzed that might reveal more

Particle physics , on the other hand, is concerned with the tiniest objects, the ultimate building blocks of the These two realms–the grandness of the heavens for as far as we can see with our biggest While I’d love to know the answers to the ultimate questions of creation, these answers still elude us.

Well, not yet, at least. Currently, a theory called the Standard Model is used to explain the particles that make up our universe and how those particles interact. Physicists have found all of the particles and forces that this theory describes, but there are still countless mysteries in the universe, like the true nature of dark matter or why there’s so much more matter than antimatter, that the Standard Model fails to explain. Various experiments are now probing the Standard Model for cracks, and this year, scientists hope to unveil a measurement from one of them, the Muon g-2 experiment, a measurement that might break from the theory.

“If the number is any different than what the Standard Model predicts, then the only explanation would be that some new particle or or new force was outside of the Standard Model,” postdoctoral researcher Saskia Charity told me as we stood on a platform overlooking the ring of the Muon g-2 experiment.

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Recently, particle physics has become the target of a strange line of scientific criticism. One of the interesting questions that both of these studies will confront is whether or not the field should prioritize construction of a new high-energy particle accelerator.

Nearly a century ago, physicist Paul Dirac made a prediction for the value of the electron’s magnetic moment, called “g,” a number that describes how its spin precesses like a wobbly top in a magnetic field. The value he predicted was 2. Very soon after, measurements revealed that g varied slightly from 2, and physicists began to use the difference between g’s actual value and 2 to probe the internal structure of subatomic particles and the laws of physics more generally. In 1959, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland built the first experiment to measure the g-2 value of a subatomic particle called the muon, basically a heavier, shorter-lived electron. Brookhaven National Lab on Long Island, New York began its own experiment, which concluded in 2001.

Brookhaven published the results of its g-2 experiment in 2004: It’s measurement deviated from what the Standard Model predicted. But the experiment didn’t take enough data for the statistical analysis to definitively prove that the value they’d measured was truly different and not just a statistical fluctuation, at least not to the five-standard-deviation level (known as five sigma) that particle physicists require to call something a discovery. And so, after 10 years, Fermilab decided to pick up the search. It had the magnet from Brookhaven’s experiment shipped along the Atlantic coast, up the Mississippi River, and then to Fermilab on a flatbed truck. Physicists would rerun the experiment with a stronger muon beam.

I Lost Nine Years Of Photos By Locking Myself Out Of My Google Account

  I Lost Nine Years Of Photos By Locking Myself Out Of My Google Account I normally use this weekly column to answer people’s technology-themed questions. This week, I’m taking a slight departure, because I think sharing a reader’s story is important—even though there’s not really much I, nor Google, can do in the case of her locked Google account. There’s a lot we can learn from her example, and a few items you should check to make sure this frustrating issue never happens to you. Lifehacker reader Cathryn writes: I stupidly forgot my Google account password back in November 2019, I had only just changed it.

The short answer is no. Not a single disease, but a loose group of many hundreds of diseases Except that general relativity and quantum physics have never been the happiest of bedfellows The Big Questions in Science: The Quest to Solve the Great Unknowns is published by Andre Deutsch.

Long answer : Questions like this on the experimental limits in particle physics can usually be answered by looking things up in the Particle Data Group's annual Review of Particle Physics . There is a summary online version and an extensive (but free!) print version.

Scientists at Fermilab have been running the experiment since 2017 and are now working on their analysis of the first wave of results. But human beings are prone to bias, so the scientists have replaced a crucial experimental variable, a clock measurement, with a random number generated by atmospheric noise. Once the researcher’s data analysis code is ironed out and found to work, the researchers will reveal the clock’s ticking speed and input that value into their code.

The true clock measurement comes from a pair of atomic clocks whose readouts sit behind a locked black cabinet in a room full of electronics on racks. Fermilab’s deputy director of research Joe Lykken told me that only two people have access to the time: Lykken and his deputy, Greg Bock. The first run has completed, and the clock measurements sit inside a pair of sealed envelopes, each labelled with Lykken or Bock’s name.

“It’s in my office, which is pretty secure,” Lykken said. He wouldn’t tell me where in his office.

a close up of a train station: The Muon g-2 experiment. The Muon g-2 experiment.

But what’s so important about a clock? Fermilab’s experiment works by first directing high-energy protons into a target, producing a shower of more protons, muon’s antiparticle partner called an antimuon, and a particle called a pion—some of which decay into more antimuons. These antimuons travel in a beam 4,000 times around the magnet and then decay into anti-electrons, called positrons, which carry a record of the muons with them. Scientists can calculate the g-2 value based on a ratio of the frequency of precession of the antimuon and the strength of the magnetic field. But calculating a frequency requires knowing the time. The scientists simply switch the random number frequency with the real frequency on the clock to get the final answer, explained Charity. Antimuons are easier for Fermilab to produce, Charity explained, but the g-2 result would be the same as for regular muons.

Has An Element Ever Been Removed From the Periodic Table?

  Has An Element Ever Been Removed From the Periodic Table? Yes, didymium, or Di. It was discovered by Carl Mosander in 1841, and he named it didymium from the Greek word didymos, meaning twin, because it was almost identical to lanthanum in its properties. In 1879, a French chemist showed that Mosander’s didymium contained samarium as well as an unknown element. In 1885, Carl von Weisbach showed that the unknown element was actually two elements, which he isolated and named praseodidymium and neodidymium (although the di syllable was soon dropped). Ironically, the twin turned out to be twins.

particle - physics experimental- physics particle -detectors. Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged particle - physics experimental- physics particle -detectors or ask your own question .

Please note that the particles associated with the two different states of the nucleon has same spin $s$ and mass $m$ (approximately). Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged particle - physics symmetry isospin-symmetry or ask your own question .

A ceremony would typically accompany the unblinding of the clock value, but Lykken explained that a select few physicists will likely perform the calculation in private before recreating the result for a larger audience. The first run’s statistics won’t be any stronger than the Brookhaven run, but they will at least confirm whether the presence of the deviation continues or if it was merely a fluctuation. Subsequent runs will tighten the error bars to see whether the deviation hits the five-sigma level. Another blinding (and unblinding) of clock values will accompany those runs.

Measuring a deviation to five standard deviations is just the first part of the story. “Say we release this number and it’s the exciting number the community is expecting—no one will believe us,” Charity said. “We have to be ready to defend everything we did. I’m not afraid of that, but it’s daunting.”

And of course, the result might reveal that the Brookhaven measurement was a statistical fluke all along, as occurred with the infamous “750 GeV bump” at CERN, when hints of a new particle at the Large Hadron Collider disappeared once more data came in. That would still be interesting, as it would rule out a bunch of potential ideas that theorists devised to explain the deviation in the first place.

“Either way, it’s really exciting,” Charity told me. But she hopes the final measured number is the one that contradicts the Standard Model, because it would challenge physicists to rethink what they have long assumed to be true about the universe.

Mercury, Not Venus, Is The Closest Planet To Earth .
A team of scientists just demonstrated something that might shock you: Mercury, not Venus, is the closest planet to Earth on average. The researchers presented their results this week in an article in the magazine Physics Today. They explain that our methods of calculating which planet is “the closest” oversimplifies the matter. But that’s not all. “Further, Mercury is the closest neighbour, on average, to each of the other seven planets in the solar system,” they write. Wait—what? Our misconceptions about how close the planets are to one another comes from the way we usually estimate the distances to other planets.

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