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Tech & Science Life under Antarctica ice is adapting to climate change

09:42  14 november  2017
09:42  14 november  2017 Source:   msn.com

First luxury Perigord truffle is cultivated in Britain

  First luxury Perigord truffle is cultivated in Britain A black Perigord truffle has been cultivated in Britain for the first time, and the scientists who announced the breakthrough on Monday said climate change could make it a new British crop. The 16-gramme (0.6-ounce) specimen was cultivated in Wales in the roots of a Mediterranean oak tree that had been treated with truffle spores.Scientists from Cambridge University and Mycorrhizal Systems Ltd (MSL) said they also added lime minerals in the surrounding soil to make it less acidic.A Perigord truffle can be worth as much as £1,700 ($2,200, 1,900 euros) per kilogramme in Britain.

Plant life on Antarctica is scarce, existing on only 0.3% of the continent, but moss, well preserved in chilly sediments, offers scientists a way of exploring how plants have responded to such changes . Writing in the journal Current Biology, scientists from three British universities and the British

Plant life on both poles is growing rapidly as the planet warms. A new study has found a steady growth of moss in Antarctica over the last 50 years as temperatures increased as a result of climate change . The study, published yesterday in the journal Current Biology

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Sea ice around Antarctica is significantly dropping and beneath the ice, scientists are surprised by the rapid changes they're seeing in marine life in the Ross Sea.

Syria to join Paris climate accord, leaving US as only non-member

  Syria to join Paris climate accord, leaving US as only non-member Syria told the UN climate talks in Bonn on Tuesday that it would join the Paris Agreement, leaving the United States as the only nation in the world opting to stay outside the landmark treaty. "We are going to join the Paris Agreement," the Syrian delegate, speaking in Arabic, said during a plenary session at the 196-nation talks, according to Safa Al Jayoussi of the IndyAct NGO, who was monitoring the session.The United States ratified the 2015 pact but US President Donald Trump announced earlier this year that he would pull out, saying the pact did not serve US interests.

Antarctica ’s ice may melt faster than previously thought as result of a newly discovered network of lakes and streams that destabilize the continent’s ice MORE: Stunning Aerials Show Toll of Climate Change in the Arctic. The study draws on satellite images of the continent dating back to 1973 and

Antarctic ice melt grew in one area and melted rapidly in another. The studies by researchers at NASA and the University of California, Irvine (UCI), found the fastest ongoing rates of It has long been argued that rising air temperatures from climate change were a main cause of Antarctic ice melt.

A scuba team of highly experienced divers are currently carrying out experiments on the sea floor, but for two of the women, it's their first time diving under the ice.

Until recently, Hamilton marine ecologist Samantha Parkes and Auckland PhD student Jenny Hillman had never been to Antarctica.

They started their training on site at New Harbour, jumping in the deep end through 3.5m of sea ice into ocean water so cold, it's -2degC. Dry suits keep them from freezing during the 45 minutes they stay underwater, diving to a depth of 20 metres.

"It's starting to feel really natural," Ms Parkes told Newshub. "It's not kind of that shock of, 'Oh my god we're under the ice'."

The scuba team have placed chambers on the sea floor, so they can closely study how the animals inside are reacting to a warming climate.

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How is climate change affecting Antarctica ? Antarctica is the coldest place on our planet, far colder than the Arctic, so changes from global warming will be slower to happen and difficult to measure. However, there …are changes happening. Ice is melting at the edges and snow is building up in the

Researchers in Antarctica have discovered rapidly growing banks of mosses on the ice continent’s northern peninsula, providing striking evidence of climate change in the coldest and most remote parts of the planet. Amid the warming of the last 50 years

"The changes, since 2009, have been remarkable," expedition leader and principal investigator Dr Drew Lohrer said.

a man holding a gun © Provided by MediaWorks NZ Limited

In the past, the sea ice at New Harbour has been locked in place for more than a decade.

Now it's breaking out every few years, generating more food - micro-algae - for the underwater sea creatures to eat.

"The most surprising thing is how quickly the organisms - the animals - have responded to that food," Dr Lohrer said.

"The diversity is quite high and there are lots more organisms than we found last time we were here."

And while more food for these creatures may seem like a positive change, it may also mean more predators.

"There are always winners and losers when you change the conditions," Dr Lohrer said.

As the team studies those changes, the divers' safety is paramount.

a man sitting in a swimming pool © Provided by MediaWorks NZ Limited

There's another dive hole, in case a seal should claim the main one, and the divers are always tethered.

NASA Discovers Mantle Plume Almost as Hot as Yellowstone Supervolcano That's Melting Antarctica From Below

  NASA Discovers Mantle Plume Almost as Hot as Yellowstone Supervolcano That's Melting Antarctica From Below Research indicates a huge upwelling of hot rock lies beneath the ice of Antarctica's Marie Byrd Land.Researchers at NASA have discovered a huge upwelling of hot rock under Marie Byrd Land, which lies between the Ross Ice Shelf and the Ross Sea, is creating vast lakes and rivers under the ice sheet. The presence of a huge mantle plume could explain why the region is so unstable today, and why it collapsed so quickly at the end of the last Ice Age, 11,000 years ago.

Antarctica is home to more than 70 lakes that lie at the base of the continental ice sheet. The cooling of Antarctica occurred stepwise, as the continental spread changed the oceanic currents from This has led to speculation that , if life ever occurred on Mars, it might have looked similar to

This story appears in the July 2017 issue of National Geographic magazine. It was first published on June 14, 2017 and updated on July 12 with news of the Larsen C break. Seen from above, the Pine Island Ice Shelf is a slow-motion train wreck.

Ms Parkes and Ms Hillman are now on their 12th dive, and despite nerves early on, they're hooked.

"I was kind of 50/50, stupidly excited, but there was always that little niggle in the back of your brain thinking you're going through a hole in the ice," Ms Parkes said.

"Once I was down there, you just kind of forget it and it's amazing - it's like the landscape of another planet."

Ms Hillman said, under the ice, it's a completely different world. The water is crystal clear and illuminated by the sun on the ice above.

"I've travelled a bit, but nothing compares to this," she said.

"It's really tiring, because you come up from every dive shivering - and that's a good dive. We've had some bad dives with leaks... you can't move, your hand just goes into a claw and it takes ages, even with a stove, just to warm up."

Despite the cold, the team are looking forward to their remaining dives, before they head home to New Zealand.

The data collected will keep them busy for at least a year, figuring out how the changing climate is impacting life under the ice.

Thousands of scientists issue bleak 'second notice' to humanity .
In 1992, scientists warned humanity about a host of impending ecological disasters. A quarter-century later, most of them have gotten worse.In late 1992, 1,700 scientists from around the world issued a dire “warning to humanity.” They said humans had pushed Earth's ecosystems to their breaking point and were well on the way to ruining the planet. The letter listed environmental impacts like they were biblical plagues — stratospheric ozone depletion, air and water pollution, the collapse of fisheries and loss of soil productivity, deforestation,  species loss and  catastrophic global climate change caused by the burning of fossil fuels.

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