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Tech & Science 2 Bizarre Ancient Galaxies Found in a Colossal Sea of Dark Matter

01:51  11 december  2017
01:51  11 december  2017 Source:   msn.com

Found Them! 72 Unseen Galaxies Found Hiding in Plain Sight

  Found Them! 72 Unseen Galaxies Found Hiding in Plain Sight Astronomers have found 72 potential galaxies hiding in plain sight inside a vast patch of the sky previously observed by the Hubble Space Telescope. The discovery not only gives astronomers new targets to study, but also will aid studies of star motion and formation and other properties of old galaxies, the researchers said.The new study was performed by the MUSE instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile.

Dark matter and dark energy are elusive, invisible phenomena scientists have long been hunting. Yes, it's only a matter of time and technology to see these elusive targets. Maybe, but scientists may debate the discovery for years before it is accepted. In this case, astronomers saw that both giant galaxies reside inside one even more enormous

People want to hear a colossal amount of dark matter instead of a little. Dark matter and Dark energy are just place holders terms. There is a phenomena (stars on the outer edges of galaxies are travelling faster than they should) which can't be explained with our current knowledge, but it behaves

An artist's impression of a pair of galaxies from the very early universe.© D. Berry/NRAO/AUI/NSF An artist's impression of a pair of galaxies from the very early universe.

Two enormous galaxies seen merging in the distant universe have astronomers rethinking the leading theory of how galaxies form.

When the universe was in its infancy, the very first galaxies were tiny "dwarf galaxies" that clumped together to form the larger galaxies seen today. Known as hierarchical formation, this theory suggests that galaxies form in a step-by-step process as smaller galaxies are pulled together by their mutual gravitational attraction.

But now, the recent discovery of two distant galaxies that are abnormally huge has led astronomers to rethink that theory because it suggests that those dwarf galaxies assembled into large galaxies a lot faster than previously thought.

Found Them! 72 Unseen Galaxies Found Hiding in Plain Sight

  Found Them! 72 Unseen Galaxies Found Hiding in Plain Sight Astronomers have found 72 potential galaxies hiding in plain sight inside a vast patch of the sky previously observed by the Hubble Space Telescope. The discovery not only gives astronomers new targets to study, but also will aid studies of star motion and formation and other properties of old galaxies, the researchers said.The new study was performed by the MUSE instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope in Chile.

When the universe was in its infancy, the very first galaxies were tiny "dwarf galaxies " that clumped together to form the larger galaxies seen today. Astronomers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

When the universe was in its infancy, the very first galaxies were tiny "dwarf galaxies " that clumped together to form the larger galaxies seen today. Astronomers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

Astronomers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile were surprised to find that these gigantic galaxies existed when the universe was only 780 million years old, or about 5 percent of its current age of 13.8 billion years. Because the light from those galaxies takes about 13 billion years to reach Earth, astronomers observing those galaxies are looking back in time at how the galaxies appeared 13 billion years ago.

"With these exquisite ALMA observations, astronomers are seeing the most massive galaxy known in the first billion years of the universe in the process of assembling itself," Dan Marrone, an associate professor of astronomy at the University of Arizona in Tucson and lead author of the new paper, said in a statement.

Oldest Monster Black Hole Ever Found Is 800 Million Times More Massive Than the Sun

  Oldest Monster Black Hole Ever Found Is 800 Million Times More Massive Than the Sun Astronomers have discovered the oldest supermassive black hole ever found — a behemoth that grew to 800 million times the mass of the sun when the universe was just 5 percent of its current age, a new study finds.This newfound giant black hole, which formed just 690 million years after the Big Bang, could one day help shed light on a number of cosmic mysteries, such as how black holes could have reached gargantuan sizes quickly after the Big Bang and how the universe got cleared of the murky fog that once filled the entire cosmos, the researchers said in the new study.

When the universe was in its infancy, the very first galaxies were tiny "dwarf galaxies " that clumped together to form the larger galaxies seen today. Astronomers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

Two enormous galaxies seen merging in the distant universe have astronomers rethinking the leading theory of how galaxies form. Astronomers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile were surprised to find that these gigantic galaxies existed when the universe was

a star filled sky© Provided by Space.com

During this time period in the ancient universe, known as the epoch of reionization, space was saturated with an opaque fog of cold hydrogen gas. As the first stars formed, energy from their starlight began to ionize the hydrogen gas, breaking it down into a transparent soup of electrons and protons.

"We usually view that as the time of little galaxies working hard to chew away at the neutral intergalactic medium," Marrone said. “Mounting observational evidence with ALMA, however, has helped to reshape that story and continues to push back the time at which truly massive galaxies first emerged in the universe."

Massive Galaxy Pair Stretches Cosmic Evolution Theories

  Massive Galaxy Pair Stretches Cosmic Evolution Theories A pair of gargantuan primordial galaxies — with about 313 billion solar masses — from when the universe was less than one billion years old, were found in a halo of dark matter.The discovery of a pair of gargantuan primordial galaxies, which existed when the universe was less than one billion years old, is in that latter category. With a combined mass of about 313 billion suns and originating just 780 million years after the Big Bang, the pair — called SPT0311-58 — pushes against the limits of how scientists understand galaxies to have formed, especially in the early universe.

Two enormous galaxies seen merging in the distant universe have astronomers rethinking the leading theory of how galaxies form. Astronomers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile were surprised to find that these gigantic galaxies existed when the universe was

Two enormous galaxies seen merging in the distant universe have astronomers rethinking the leading theory of how galaxies form. Astronomers at the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile were surprised to find that these gigantic galaxies existed when the universe was

Around that same time in the ancient universe, dark matter — a mysterious, invisible form of matter that accounts for about a quarter of the universe's mass — also began to form clumps. As gravity pulled together clumps of both visible matter and dark matter, galaxies were born inside "halos" of dark matter. In a way, dark matter acts as scaffolding for young galaxies as they form by providing the gravity needed to pull mass together.

In this case, astronomers saw that both giant galaxies reside inside one even more enormous dark-matter halo. The researchers said that this is one of the largest examples of a dark-matter halo ever discovered.

To top it off, the two galaxies appear to be merging and will someday form "the largest galaxy ever observed at that period in cosmic history," ALMA officials said in the statement. "This discovery provides new details about the emergence of large galaxies and the role that dark matter plays in assembling the most massive structures in the universe."

The two galaxies, collectively known as SPT0311-58, were originally spotted by astronomers at the South Pole Telescope in Antarctica. Initially, the scientists thought SPT0311-58 was a single galaxy, but further observations by ALMA found that SPT0311-58 is actually a pair of huge galaxies.

"There are more galaxies discovered with the South Pole Telescope that we're following up on," said Joaquin Vieira, a co-author of the study and astronomy professor at the University of Illinois. "Our hope is to find more objects like this, possibly even more distant ones, to better understand this population of extreme dusty galaxies and especially their relation to the bulk population of galaxies at this epoch."

The study was published online today (Dec. 6) in the journal Nature.

Cigar-shaped object 'could be alien artefact' .
Astronomers are to scan a huge cigar-shaped interstellar object for signs of alien life, amid claims it could be some kind of artefact. Researchers involved in Seti - the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence - will turn a powerful dish telescope towards "Oumuamua", which was first spotted in October.It is the first object discovered in the solar system that appears to have come from another part of the galaxy - and is assumed to be an asteroid.However, its elongated cigar shape and the fact that it is hundreds of metres in length but only one tenth as wide is peculiar for a typical space rock.

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