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Tech & Science 'Ghost' particles from black-hole jetstream found in Arctic

03:30  13 july  2018
03:30  13 july  2018 Source:   theage.com.au

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' Ghost ' particles from black - hole jetstream found in Antarctic. Scientists determined that the neutrino found on the South Pole was shot out of the jetstream of an extremely powerful black hole in a blazar galaxy 4 billion light-years away.

The secrets of the origins of light are set to be unlocked by the discovery of an elusive “ ghost ” particle a mile beneath Antarctica, scientists have

Neutrinos from the jet stream of a black hole have been detected in the South Pole.© IceCube/NASA Neutrinos from the jet stream of a black hole have been detected in the South Pole.

Neutrinos are the universe’s ghosts. Trillions of these particles move through us all the time at close to the speed of light. We cannot see, feel or sense them

For the first time, scientists have captured a neutrino and traced its origin - a supermassive black hole 4 billion light-years away.

The IceCube observatory, the world's largest neutrino detector, at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.© New York Times The IceCube observatory, the world's largest neutrino detector, at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.

The discovery could reveal more about some of the universe's great mysteries - black holes and dark matter.

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It Came From a Black Hole , and Landed in Antarctica . The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica , where the tiny particle believed to have Where does the rain of high-energy particles from space known as cosmic rays come from ? It came from a Black Hole LANDED in Antarctica

What ' Ghost ' particles from black - hole jetstream found in Arctic . By: theage.com.au 13 hours ago.

“We are truly in the era of astro-particle physics," says Swinburne University astronomer Associate Professor Alan Duffy. "This may lead to us finally learning how black holes grow and feed, as well as shed a light on dark matter."

What is a neutrino?

A neutrino hitting a molecule of ice (artist's impression). The neutrino is the white circle in the centre of the red-coloured ice molecule.© Nicolle R. Fuller/NSF/IceCube A neutrino hitting a molecule of ice (artist's impression). The neutrino is the white circle in the centre of the red-coloured ice molecule.

A neutrino is one of the universe's fundamental particles, says Adelaide University Associate Professor Gary Hill, who is a member of the international team behind the discovery.

But unlike nearly every other particle, it has no mass, no electric charge, and does not interact with anything. It just exists, alone, in the universe.

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Share: Neutrinos are the universe’s ghosts . Trillions of these particles move through us all the time at close to the speed of light. We cannot see, feel or sense them.

They are produced when very small particles called protons smack into each other at high speed.

To find one, you dig

The IceCube Lab, where the neutrino was found and traced.© Icecube/NSF The IceCube Lab, where the neutrino was found and traced.

To search for a ghost, you go under the ice.

Scientists dug 2.5 kilometres beneath the South Pole, where they built the IceCube Neutrino Observatory.

Professor Hill spent several seasons living on the ice cap to help build it. “It was like being on a big construction site, except it was minus 20 or 30 degrees all the time. It was a massive engineering feat.”

Very, very rarely neutrinos bump into other particles, releasing a tiny burst of radiation and a pale blue light. This is the only way of knowing they are there. IceCube’s sensors monitor one square kilometre of ice for those telltale bursts of light.

This artist's impression shows the dust torus around a super-massive black hole and, coming from the centre, the jetstream.© ESA/Hubble This artist's impression shows the dust torus around a super-massive black hole and, coming from the centre, the jetstream.

So far, they’ve been operating for almost eight years. In that time, they’ve found maybe 1000 high-speed neutrinos - including this one.

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Scientists determined that the neutrino found on the South Pole was shot out of the jetstream of an extremely powerful black hole in a blazar galaxy 4 billion light-years away.

Blazar galaxies have huge black holes at their centre. These black holes are so powerful they produce a huge jet of red-hot energy - like the exhaust of a jet engine.

The jet is so powerful it accelerates protons to such a speed that when they collide a neutrino is produced.

“This guy [the black hole] is 4 billion light-years away from Earth. That means this neutrino started its journey probably around the time the Earth was born,” says Professor Hill.

Now what?

An artist's impression of a neutrino detector buried deep beneath the ice. The blue light is the signal for a passing neutrino.© Nicolle R. Fuller/NSF/IceCube An artist's impression of a neutrino detector buried deep beneath the ice. The blue light is the signal for a passing neutrino.

Scientists are already thinking up ways of using this discovery to find out more about the universe, especially about dark matter.

Dark matter makes up 25 per cent of the universe, but is even more ghostly than a neutrino – we are yet to detect it at all.

“We know there is dark matter all around us,” says Professor Hill. “Some of it will get trapped in the core of the Sun and the core of the Earth, and eventually release neutrinos – now we’re hunting for those.”

Archaeologists opened a mysterious black sarcophagus found in Egypt — and they discovered a gruesome scene .
Archaeologists in Egypt pried open a mysterious, 2,000-year-old sarcophagus found in the port city of Alexandria earlier this month. While some had thought the sarcophagus may contain royalty, or even Alexander the Great himself, it was found to contain the remains of three soldiers.Legends abounded about the sarcophagus, which was first found over 16 feet below ground by construction workers in a residential area of Alexandria earlier this month. Some observers thought it may contain the corpse of Alexander the Great, as the sarcophagus dates back to the early Ptolemaic period, or around 323 B.C., which began following Alexander's death.

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