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World Shadow of history makes Karabakh solution elusive

09:31  09 october  2020
09:31  09 october  2020 Source:   msn.com

Nagorno-Karabakh battles continue for a third day: Live news

  Nagorno-Karabakh battles continue for a third day: Live news Al Jazeera’s live coverage of the latest military escalation between Azerbaijan and Armenia in the disputed region.“The chancellor urgently called for an immediate ceasefire and a return to the negotiating table,” Steffen Seibert said.

Close this content. AFP. Shadow of history makes Karabakh solution elusive . The testy English-language exchange provided a stark illustration over how radically different views of history impede the search for a solution in the most intractable conflict left by the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Local residents walk in a street after it was hit by a missile in Gandja, Azerbaijan, on October 8, 2020, near the disputed Nagorno- Karabakh province's capital Stepanakert as fighting between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces spilled over ahead of a first meeting of international mediators in Geneva.

When Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev and Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan shared a platform in a rare encounter at February's Munich Security Conference, they were both asked to give a historical overview of Nagorno-Karabakh.

a person standing in front of a building: A woman collects water in Stepanakert, Norogono-Karabakh's main city © - A woman collects water in Stepanakert, Norogono-Karabakh's main city a close up of a man wearing a suit and tie: Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan has called for unification between Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia © - Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan has called for unification between Nagorno-Karabakh and Armenia

It did not end well.

New Armenia, Azerbaijan shelling despite calls for halt

  New Armenia, Azerbaijan shelling despite calls for halt Heavy shelling between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces persisted Thursday despite fresh calls from world leaders for an end to days of fighting over the disputed Nagorny Karabakh region. In the breakaway province's capital Stepanakert, two explosions were heard around midnight as sirens sounded. Residents said the city had been attacked by drones. The rival Caucasus nations have been locked in a bitter stalemate over the Karabakh region since the collapse of the Soviet Union when the ethnic Armenian province broke away from Azerbaijan.

Armenians made up the majority in Nagorno- Karabakh and the Soviet republic of Armenia repeatedly pressed to take control of the NKAO, in moves resisted by Moscow. But as the Soviet Union began to disintegrate, a breakaway republic was declared and war broke out.

Armenians made up the majority in Nagorno- Karabakh and the Soviet republic of Armenia repeatedly pressed to take control of the NKAO, in moves resisted by Moscow. But as the Soviet Union began to disintegrate, a breakaway republic was declared and war broke out.

"In order to talk about how to resolve the conflict first we need to go back and look at the issue of history," declared Aliyev, arguing it is "historical truth" that Nagorno-Karabakh is part of Azerbaijan.

"I would ask President Aliyev not to go too far into history," retorted Pashinyan, asserting that the region only became part of Azerbaijan due to a decision taken in the early years of the Soviet Union.

map: World powers circling Nagorno-Karabakh © Patricio ARANA World powers circling Nagorno-Karabakh

The testy English-language exchange provided a stark illustration over how radically different views of history impede the search for a solution in the most intractable conflict left by the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Two weeks into the fiercest fighting over Nagorno-Karabakh since a 1990s war prompted when the region declared unilateral independence, analysts say the historical burden prevents Armenia and Azerbaijan reaching a long-term agreement, with fighting only halted by short-lived ceasefires.

Nagorno-Karabakh: fighting intensifies on the front line, civilians flee to Armenia

 Nagorno-Karabakh: fighting intensifies on the front line, civilians flee to Armenia © Handout / Armenian Defense Ministry / AFP A soldier from the Nagorno-Karabakh defense army fires a coin. artillery towards Azeri positions during the fighting in the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh, September 28, 2020. The fighting continues for the seventh consecutive day, this Saturday, in Nagorno-Karabakh. The Armenian authorities claim that Azerbaijan has launched a major offensive.

Leading up to this historic agreement was a bloody, and largely one-sided conflict in which Azerbaijan proved once and for all that a new generation of Initially the undisputed territory of Azerbaijan, the regions surrounding Nagorno- Karabakh have been under the de-facto control of the Artsakh Republic

Nagorno- Karabakh has been a frozen conflict for more than a decade, but artillery shelling and minor skirmishes between Armenian and Azerbaijani troops have caused hundreds of deaths.

Ilham Aliyev wearing a suit and tie: Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev has promised to win against Armenian and separatist forces © Handout Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev has promised to win against Armenian and separatist forces

For Azerbaijan, Nagorno-Karabakh is an integral part of the Azerbaijani state and is recognised as such by the UN. It has a centuries-old record of Muslim settlement by Persians and Seljuk Turks.

But Armenians argue that Nagorno-Karabakh -- which became part of the Russian Empire at the start of the 19th century -- only ended up within Soviet Azerbaijan as the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) due to a whim.

At their discussion in Munich, Pashinyan said that the decision to include the territory within Azerbaijan in the early 1920s was due to the "personal initiative" of Joseph Stalin, then Soviet commissar for nationalities.

Needless to say, the assertion was hotly disputed by Aliyev.

- 'So entrenched' -


Video: Armenia, Azerbaijan fight over disputed territory in the former Soviet Union (FOX News)

Fears grow for civilians as Karabakh fighting rages

  Fears grow for civilians as Karabakh fighting rages Clashes between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces were raging over the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region on Monday as fears grew for civilians after the two sides shelled major cities. Separatist forces in Karabakh -- an ethnic Armenian enclave that broke away from Azerbaijan in the 1990s -- reported firefights along the frontline with the regional capital Stepanakert under heavy artillery fire. Azerbaijan's defence ministry said Armenian forces were shelling three of its towns, after hitting the country's second-largest city Ganja on Sunday.

The film talks about the genocide of Khojaly which is organized by Armenian soldiers in 1992, Khojaly town of Azerbaijan. Armenians murdered Azerbaijanis wildly and occupied the lands of Azerbaijan. ( Karabakh ).

Real World article(written from a Production point of view). An all-new adventure from history 's shadow ! Elusive Salvation is a Pocket TOS novel written by Dayton Ward. Published by Pocket Books, it was first released in April 2016. From the book jacket.

Armenians made up the majority in Nagorno-Karabakh and the Soviet republic of Armenia repeatedly pressed to take control of the NKAO, in moves resisted by Moscow.

But as the Soviet Union began to disintegrate, a breakaway republic was declared and war broke out.

The Armenians emerged victorious with a ceasefire finally agreed.

With hundreds of thousands of Azerbaijanis displaced from Karabakh and seven surrounding regions in Azerbaijan occupied by Armenian forces, the population of Karabakh is now almost entirely Armenian.

But Nagorno-Karabakh has never had its independence recognised by any other state, including Armenia itself.

"The positions of Armenia and Azerbaijan are so entrenched that the international community has little practical leverage over them," said Nicu Popescu, director of the Wider Europe programme at the European Council on Foreign Relations.

He said the most likely scenario was not an end to the cycle of conflict or an outright military victory but more wars in the future for "salami-slicing" of territory.

Armenia PM Pashinyan says Turkey behind 'war' in Karabakh

  Armenia PM Pashinyan says Turkey behind 'war' in Karabakh Turkey's "full support" motivated its ally Azerbaijan to reignite fighting in the disputed Nagorno-Karabakh region, Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan said Tuesday in an interview with AFP, calling the escalating conflict a "war against terrorism". "While it is true that the leadership of Azerbaijan has been actively promoting bellicose rhetoric for the last 15 years, now the decision to unleash a war was motivated by Turkey's full"While it is true that the leadership of Azerbaijan has been actively promoting bellicose rhetoric for the last 15 years, now the decision to unleash a war was motivated by Turkey's full support," the 45-year-old premier said.

Both sides have doubled down on their positions since the meeting in Munich.

"We have to go back there (Karabakh)," said Aliyev at the weekend, describing it as "our land".

On a visit to Karabakh in August, Pashinyan had even called for unification with Armenia, declaring "Artsakh (Karabakh) is Armenia, and that's it."

- 'Angry rhetoric' -

Both sides also deploy a selective view of history, focusing on atrocities committed by the other side while overlooking their own.

Armenians remember the pogroms in Sumgait in Azerbaijan when mobs went on the rampage in February 1988, leaving at least 26 Armenians dead.

But in Khojaly in 1992, Armenians fired on fleeing civilians in a massacre that Azerbaijan says left hundreds dead.

Since a ceasefire ended the latest flare-up in fighting in 2016, "the peace process has ground to a virtual halt with a corresponding rise in angry rhetoric," said analysts at the International Crisis Group.

The role in the region of Turkey, Azerbaijan's chief ally, poses another problem as Armenians despise the modern Turkish state for its refusal to recognise the massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire as genocide.

Analysts point out that where there has been less loaded interpretation of history, all hope is not lost, with Armenians and Azerbaijanis peacefully co-existing during much of the Soviet era and even today outside the Caucasus region, notably in Russia.

"Someone should perhaps reprint the text of the 1724 Persian-era friendship treaty signed between the Armenian lords of Karabakh and the Azerbaijani khans of Ganje against the Ottoman Turks," commented Tom de Waal, Senior Fellow at Carnegie Europe, after the presidents rowed in Munich.

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Twenty French deputies demand recognition of the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh .
© ETIENNE LAURENT / EPA / MAXPPP Demonstrators in favor of the recognition of Nagorno-Karabakh, October 11, 2020 in Los Angeles. About twenty elected members of the National Assembly want France to recognize "full sovereignty" of Nagorno-Karabakh, against "Azerbaijani aggression". Twenty deputies demanded Thursday, October 15, for France to recognize without delay the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh republic, in the grip of armed clashes between Azerbaijan and the Armenian independence forces.

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