World Explainer: When and how will COVID-19 vaccines become available?

13:41  25 november  2020
13:41  25 november  2020 Source:   reuters.com

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Americans are desperate to know when a coronavirus vaccine will be available to finally curb the This outside panel could also ask a company to stop a trial if it was not preventing Covid - 19 cases, or if Whether the vaccine is effective is determined by comparing how many people in each group

When is the vaccine for Covid - 19 going to be available ? This is the question everyone wants the answer to. Both the Pfizer vaccine and Moderna vaccine were found to be more than 90% effective and the Oxford University vaccine has reported 70% protection. Without a cure or definitive treatment

By Julie Steenhuysen and Carl O'Donnell

a close up of a bottle with a blue toothbrush: FILE PHOTO: A woman holds a small bottle labeled with a © Reuters/DADO RUVIC FILE PHOTO: A woman holds a small bottle labeled with a "Coronavirus COVID-19 Vaccine" sticker and a medical syringe in this illustration

NEW YORK (Reuters) - Pfizer Inc with partner BioNTech SE and Moderna Inc have released trial data showing their COVID-19 vaccines to be about 95% effective at preventing the illness, while AstraZeneca Plc this week said its vaccine could be up to 90% effective.

If regulators approve any of the vaccines in coming weeks, the companies have said distribution could begin almost immediately with governments around the world to decide who gets them and in what order. The following is an outline of the process:

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COVID - 19 infections typically take hold in so-called mucosal tissues that line the upper respiratory tract, and to effectively prevent viral spread, "you need to Even if a COVID - 19 vaccine can jumpstart the necessary immune response, researchers aren’t sure how long that immunity might last, Jacobs added.

Some 200 Covid - 19 vaccines are in development around the world, according to the World Health Organization, each one promising to protect people from the deadly coronavirus and allow them to go back to work and school. Now, nearly a dozen are starting or nearing the final stage of testing.


Pfizer, Moderna and AstraZeneca have already started manufacturing their vaccines. This year, Pfizer said it will have enough to inoculate 25 million people, Moderna will have enough for 10 million people and AstraZeneca will have enough for more than 100 million people.

a close up of a bottle: FILE PHOTO: Vials and medical syringe are seen in front of AstraZeneca logo in this illustration © Reuters/DADO RUVIC FILE PHOTO: Vials and medical syringe are seen in front of AstraZeneca logo in this illustration

The U.S. Department of Defense and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) will manage distribution in the United States, likely starting in mid-December with an initial release of 6.4 million doses nationwide.

UK health authorities plan to roll out an approved vaccine as quickly as possible, also expected in December.

Will countries be left behind in the vaccine race?

  Will countries be left behind in the vaccine race? Experts say the pandemic needs a global solution, but there are concerns over access to vaccines.There have been more than 55 million cases of the virus confirmed around the world and more than 1.3 million deaths. Many hopes are pinned on a vaccine as a solution. But there are concerns that poorer nations could get left behind.

There are currently more than 100 COVID - 19 vaccine candidates under development, with a number of these in the human trial phase. When a safe and effective vaccine is found, COVAX (led by WHO , GAVI and CEPI ) will facilitate the equitable access and distribution of these vaccines to protect

How are vaccines tested? In the pre-clinical stage of testing, researchers give the vaccine to animals to see if it triggers an immune response. In phase 3, the vaccine is given to thousands of people to confirm its safety – including rare side effects – and effectiveness. These trials involve a control group

In the European Union, it is up to each country in the 27-member bloc to start distributing vaccines to their populations.


Upon authorization from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the CDC has said first in line for vaccinations would be about 21 million healthcare workers and 3 million residents in long-term care facilities.

Essential workers, a group of 87 million people who do crucial work in jobs that cannot be done from home, are the likely next group. This includes firefighters, police, school employees, transportation workers, food and agriculture workers and food service employees.

Around 100 million adults with high-risk medical conditions and 53 million adults over the age of 65, also considered at higher risk of severe disease, are the next priority.

U.S. public health officials said vaccines will be generally available to most Americans in pharmacies, clinics and doctors offices starting in April so that anyone who wants a shot can have one by the end of June.

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We explain how vaccine trials work, when one might be ready, and who may get them first. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention told public health agencies last week that limited doses of a vaccine may be available beginning in late October or November, although that would only be if a

White House coronavirus advisor Dr. Anthony Fauci said that a coronavirus vaccine likely won't be "widely available " to the American public until "several Public health officials and scientists expect to know whether at least one of the numerous potential Covid - 19 vaccines in development is safe and

It is unclear when a vaccine will be available for children. Pfizer and BioNTech have started testing their vaccine in volunteers as young as 12.


The European Union, the United Kingdom, Japan, Canada and Australia are all running rapid vaccine regulatory processes.

Many of AstraZeneca's doses this year are expected to go to the United Kingdom, where health officials have said that if approved they could begin vaccinating people in December. At the top of their list is people living and working in care homes.

In Europe, the E.U. drugs regulator has said it could rule on the safety of a COVID-19 vaccine in December.

Most countries have said the first vaccines will go to the elderly and vulnerable and frontline workers like doctors.

Countries say they are buying vaccines via the European Commission's joint procurement scheme, which has deals for six different vaccines and nearly 2 billion doses.

Delivery timelines vary and most countries are still drawing up plans for distributing and administering shots.

In China, nearly 1 million people have reportedly already gotten a coronavirus vaccine

  In China, nearly 1 million people have reportedly already gotten a coronavirus vaccine China’s emergency vaccine program is a risky proof of concept for large-scale Covid-19 vaccine deployment.The vaccinations have occurred as part of an emergency use program that began in late July, though few details about it have been revealed by the Chinese government. What we do know is that as part of the program, China’s State Council authorized high-risk groups including medical workers, customs officials, and transportation workers to start receiving one of three Chinese-made vaccines — two from Sinopharm and one produced by Sinovac. But some Chinese cities have also been offering the vaccines to members of the public.

Italy expects to receive the first deliveries of the Pfizer-BioNTech shot and AstraZeneca's shot early next year. Spain plans to give vaccines in January.

In Bulgaria, the country's chief health inspector expects the first shipments in March-April. Hungary's foreign minister said doses will land in the spring at the earliest.

Germany, home to BioNTech, expects to roll out shots in early 2021 with mass vaccination centers in exhibition halls, airport terminals and concert venues. It will also use mobile teams for care homes. Front-line healthcare workers and people at risk for serious COVID-19 are expected to get inoculated first.


COVAX, a program led by the World Health Organization and the GAVI vaccine group to pool funds from wealthier countries and nonprofits to buy and distribute vaccines to dozens of poorer countries, has raised $2 billion.

Its first goal is to vaccinate 3% of the people in these countries with a final goal of reaching 20%. It has signed a provisional agreement to buy AstraZeneca's vaccine, which does not require storage in specialized ultra cold equipment like the Pfizer vaccine.

It is expected but not certain that less wealthy countries in Africa and South East Asia, such as India, will receive vaccines at low or no cost under this program in 2021. Other countries such as those in Latin America may buy vaccines through COVAX. Several are also striking supply deals with drugmakers.


Vaccine makers and governments have negotiated varying prices, not all of which are public. Governments have paid from a few dollars per AstraZeneca shot to up to $50 for the two-dose Pfizer regimen. Many countries have said they will cover the cost of inoculating their residents.

(Reporting by Carl O'Donnell and Julie Steenhuysen; Additional reporting by Michael Erman in New York, Caroline Copley in Berlin, Francesco Gaurascio in Brussels, Josephine Mason in London, Krisztina Than in Budapest and Tsvetelia Tsolova in Sofia; Editing by Caroline Humer and Bill Berkrot)

Scientists are aiming to launch a nationwide trial 'as soon as possible' to find out if the top coronavirus vaccines can stop the virus from spreading .
Massive studies have shown that two leading coronavirus vaccines are highly effective at preventing people from getting sick with COVID-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus. Top researchers are already pitching plans for additional studies, Business Insider has learned. This research aims to answer a critical question: can these experimental shots also prevent transmission of the virus, particularly asymptomatic infections? Key barriers to these studies are getting funding and getting vaccine developers Pfizer or Moderna on board. Dr.

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