World The Differences Between Covid Vaccines by Johnson & Johnson, Moderna, Pfizer, Astrazeneca
Why Israel’s Vaccine Success Might Be Hard to Replicate
A credible health-care system may be the key determinant to success.It’s the kind of standout success one would expect from the now-familiar stars of the global response to COVID-19—Taiwan, South Korea, or New Zealand. But it’s actually been achieved by Israel, in several respects a surprising country to be the world’s front-runner on vaccine distribution. A 2019 Johns Hopkins study ranked Israel an unspectacular 54th among 195 countries in terms of preparedness for a pandemic. After initially appearing to vanquish the coronavirus, Israel has since suffered some of the world’s worst outbreaks—something that remains true as it celebrates its vaccine advances.
On Friday, Johnson & Johnson revealed new details regarding its COVID-19 vaccine candidate. But how does it stack up against shots that are already available in the U.S. or others that could be authorized for emergency use soon?
Johnson & Johnson
Thevaccine only requires one shot, which the company has said it will provide on a "non-profit" basis for the duration of the pandemic—costing around $10 a dose.
While an ongoing Phase III clinical trial assessing the vaccine has yet to be completed, the company has announced that the vaccine was 66 percent effective overall in preventing moderate to severe COVID-19, 28 days after vaccination, according to an interim analysis.
Pfizer Follows Moderna in Developing Vaccine Booster Shots for COVID Variants
The makers of both of the only COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in the U.S. have announced that they are developing booster shots to improve protection against emerging strains of virus.The development of Pfizer/BioNTech boosters against variants that could have resistance to current vaccines was announced on Tuesday, according to Reuters. On Monday, Moderna revealed that it was developing a follow-up shot to better protect against the South African B.1.351 virus strain, which is believed to be significantly more contagious than versions of the virus that are frequently seen in U.S. patients.
Notably, there were differences in efficacy results depending on the location. For example, the efficacy was 72 percent among trial volunteers in the U.S., but 66 percent in Latin America and 57 percent in—where a new more infectious variant has taken hold—at 28 days after vaccination.
But the vaccine candidate was 85 percent effective in preventing severe disease across all the regions that were studied.
The vaccine is based on a modified adenovirus—a common virus that causes cold-like symptoms—that has been engineered to carry pieces of genetic material from the "spike protein" of SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19.
The company said it expects to apply to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration () next week for emergency use authorization, with Mathai Mammen, the company's global head of research and development, telling that this could come by late February—although March or April is also possible.
EU and AstraZeneca seek to resolve vaccine crisis
Both sides pledge to work together after a reported 50 million-dose shortfall for the 27-member EU.This comes after crisis talks which both sides described as "constructive".
The vaccine can remain stable for two years at -4 degrees Fahrenheit, and at least three months at 35-46 degrees Fahrenheit—about the same as a home refrigerator—according to the company.
Therequires two doses, which should be administered 21 days apart.
The vaccine was authorized for emergency use by the FDA on December 11, 2020—becoming the first COVID-19 shot to receive regulatory approval in the U.S.
The vaccine, which is based on mRNA technology, has an efficacy of 95 percent. It contains tiny fragments of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which are injected into the body, enabling the immune system to build up defenses against the disease.
The U.S. is paying $19.50 per dose for the first 100 million doses of the vaccine, which must be stored at a temperature of -94 degrees Fahrenheit.
The Moderna COVID-19 vaccine also requires two doses, which should be administered 28 days apart.
Covid: Why is EU’s vaccine rollout so slow?
The BBC's Katya Adler asks if the 27-member bloc's all-for-one and one-for-all approach has failed.As things stand, according to EU sources, the bloc looks sets to receive only a quarter of the 100 million doses it had been expecting from pharma company AstraZeneca by the end of March - putting millions of lives at risk.
Like the Pfizer-BioNTech shot, the vaccine is based on mRNA technology. Clinical trials have shown it be around 95 percent effective.
The FDA authorized the vaccine for emergency use on December 18, 2020—making it the second vaccine to receive regulatory approval in the U.S.
Moderna is charging governments $25-$37 per dose for the vaccine, which is stable at 36 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit for up to 30 days, and can be stored for six months at -4 degrees Fahrenheit.
AstraZeneca-University of Oxford
The vaccine developed by AstraZeneca-University of Oxford has been shown to have an overall efficacy of around 70 percent in large-scale clinical trials.
The vaccine was authorized for emergency use in the U.K. in December, and on Friday the European Medicines Agency approved the shot for use across the 27 member states of the. It likely won't receive approval in the U.S. until spring.
The vaccine, which is based on similar modified adenovirus technology to the Johnson & Johnson candidate, requires two doses administered 28 days apart.
Health chief defends AstraZeneca vaccine as some question Australia's COVID-19 vaccine strategy .
Australia is relying on Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines to protect its citizens from COVID-19 but some believe it was a mistake to bypass other leading candidates such as Moderna and they want to know why, write Marty McCarthy and Nadia DalyThe criticism prompted the nation's former chief medical officer, now head of the Department of Health, Professor Brendan Murphy, to defend the AstraZeneca vaccine, telling 7.30 he would be "very pleased to have it".