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World Subway Collapse That Killed 26 Blamed on Defects From Company of Mexico's Richest Man

23:35  16 june  2021
23:35  16 june  2021 Source:   newsweek.com

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Mexico City's deadly subway collapse that killed 26 people in early May was largely caused by defects in the elevated line, according to an expert report. The findings may take a toll on the reputation of Mexico's richest man, whose company built part of the fallen subway line.

a large body of water with a city in the background: subway cars dangle at an angle from a collapsed elevated section of the metro in Mexico City, the day after the collapse. A preliminary report on June 16, 2021, by experts into the collapse that killed 26 people placed much of the blame on poor welds in studs that joined steel support beams to a concrete layer supporting the trackbed. © Fernando Llano/AP Photo subway cars dangle at an angle from a collapsed elevated section of the metro in Mexico City, the day after the collapse. A preliminary report on June 16, 2021, by experts into the collapse that killed 26 people placed much of the blame on poor welds in studs that joined steel support beams to a concrete layer supporting the trackbed.

The Mexico City government contracted the Norwegian certification firm DNV to investigate the incident. The company released a preliminary report Wednesday asserting there were poor welds in studs that connected steel support beams and a concrete support for the track bed.

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"The studs showed deficiencies in the welding process," the report states.

The firm also found there weren't as many studs as there should have been, and the concrete poured atop them may have been faulty, causing the line to collapse and pulling two subway cars with it.

The company of Mexico's richest man, Carlos Slim, is currently involved in construction for the Maya Train project that will travel the Yucatan Peninsula.

For more reporting from the Associated Press, see below:

The existence of construction defects when the line was built between 2010 and 2012 could be a major blow to the political career of Mexico's top diplomat, who was mayor at the time, and to Mexico's richest man, whose company built part of the subway line.

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The report centered on photos and physical inspection that showed metal studs welded to the top of steel support beams had broken or sheered off cleanly, suggesting the welds were defective.

The beams could not carry the weight of the track bed on their own. The studs projecting upward from the beams were covered with a poured concrete slab meant to help carry the weight.

But the studs were found to be still carrying ceramic rings that covered the welds. Used as a safety and control method to contain the molten steel, the rings were supposed to have been knocked off after welding so inspectors could see the welds themselves. The fact they were left in place may suggest the welds were not properly inspected.

That would fit in with reports that the project was rushed to completion so the Number 12 subway line could be inaugurated by current Foreign Relations Secretary Marcelo Ebrard before he left office as mayor in 2012.

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The $1.3 billion Number 12 Line, the newest section of a vast subway system opened in 1969, was ill-fated from the start. The so-called Gold Line cost half as much as projected, suffered repeated construction delays, and was hit with allegations of design flaws, corruption and conflicts of interest.

A top executive of one of the companies that built it was the brother of the man who oversaw the project for the government.

The scandal over forced closure of the costly new line in 2014—just 17 months after it was inaugurated—essentially forced Ebrard into political exile. He was rescued by his patron, new President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who had helped make him mayor in 2006 and resuscitated him by naming him foreign relations secretary in 2018.

Despite the subway scandal, Ebrard was put in charge of Mexico's efforts to obtain coronavirus vaccines and was considered a top contender to succeed López Obrador in 2024.

Ebrard has said he'll cooperate with investigations into last month's accident.

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Previous reports by engineering firms revealed Ebrard's city government had made a series of startlingly wrong choices when the subway line was designed and built.

Experts said unusually sharp curves in the route exacerbated problems with the wheels-on-steel track design, which more resembles New York's subway rather than the European-style rubber tires used on the rest of the system.

The Gold Line line chattered, bumped and shrieked. The rails began to take on a wavy pattern. Drivers had to slow trains to as little as 3 mph (5 kph) on some stretches.

In 2014, the Gold Line had to be shut down for months for the tracks to be replaced or ground into shape.

Ballast was added between the train's tracks during those repairs, and some say extra weight and possible poor maintenance could have been potential factors in the collapse.

An official 2017 survey of damage from a deadly 7.1 magnitude quake showed indications of construction defects. Authorities decided on quick patches, welding props under the bowed beams and reopening service.

Ebrard has argued that subsequent investigations showed the line was judged to comply with standards when it was built. He wrote that "the supervision and maintenance that was up to the administration that succeeded mine remains in large part an unknown."

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Following earlier investigations into the design and corruption, more than 38 government employees were hit with fines or other punishments for improperly contracting out work on the train, as well as some criminal charges.

Since the May accident, much of the line has been closed. The elevated portion of the tracks rise about 16 feet (5 meters) above a median strip and roadway in the poor southern borough of Tlahuac. Slender, reinforced concrete columns are topped by horizontal steel beams, which in turn support prefabricated concrete track beds on which gravel, railway ties and tracks are laid.

Mexico City's subway, which serves 4.6 million riders every day, has never had the one thing it needs most: money. With ticket prices stuck at 25 cents per ride, one of the lowest rates in the world, the system has never come close to paying its own costs, and depends on massive government subsidies.

a traffic light on a city street: A vendor pushes his bicycle past the missing section of an elevated metro in Mexico City, Wednesday, June 16, 2021. Fernando Llano/AP Photo © Fernando Llano/AP Photo A vendor pushes his bicycle past the missing section of an elevated metro in Mexico City, Wednesday, June 16, 2021. Fernando Llano/AP Photo

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