Canada: David J. Bercuson: Russia set to dominate the Arctic unless Canada acts quickly to address shipping concerns - - PressFrom - Canada
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Canada David J. Bercuson: Russia set to dominate the Arctic unless Canada acts quickly to address shipping concerns

08:20  29 november  2019
08:20  29 november  2019 Source:   nationalpost.com

Thomas S. Axworthy: As Russia and China step up their Arctic activity, Canada misses the boat

  Thomas S. Axworthy: As Russia and China step up their Arctic activity, Canada misses the boat The annual Halifax International Security Forum runs from Friday to Sunday of this week. To mark the occasion, the National Post is presenting a series of essays written by conference participants. Today, Thomas S. Axworthy explains how Canada’s Arctic neighbours are outpacing our own northern efforts. Three state documents tell the story. At the end of 2015, President Vladimir Putin endorsed a new National Security Strategy to 2020 that explicitly aimed to increase the “competitiveness and international prestige of the Russian Federation.” The Arctic is central to this Russian worldview.

Russia ’s hegemony over Arctic shipping routes is bound to strengthen as long as Canada and the U.S. fail to co-operate over the Northwest Passage, according to a recent policy paper. “We’re probably a decade behind what the Russians are doing,” said John Higginbotham, a former Transport Canada

Canadians find the notion that any part of our Arctic should belong to anyone else, or be an The solution is not for Mike Pompeo to come on to the school grounds and act like a bully. David J . Bercuson is a fellow of the Canadian Global Affairs Institute and director of the Centre for Military

a large ship in a body of water: Two Canadian ships sail past an iceberg in the Hudson Strait off the coast of Baffin Island. © Sergeant Kevin MacAulay Two Canadian ships sail past an iceberg in the Hudson Strait off the coast of Baffin Island.

Editor’s note: The opinions in this article are the author’s, as published by our content partner, and do not necessarily represent the views of MSN or Microsoft.

The Arctic Ocean is warming and with it maritime traffic on the Northwest and Northeast passages is increasing. The only Arctic nation that has the capacity to monitor and support such shipping is Russia. Neither Canada nor the United States have much to offer in the event of a maritime disaster in North American Arctic waters.

Study finds microplastics in all remote Arctic beluga whales tested

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Bercuson , David J .. The Fighting Canadians : Canada 's Regimental History from New France to Afghanistan Toronto: Harper Collins, 2008. Bercuson , David J . and Herwig, Holger H.. One Christmas in Washington: The Secret Meeting Between Roosevelt and Churchill that Changed the

The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC; French: Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada ) was a truth and reconciliation commission active in Canada from 2008 to 2015, organized by the parties of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement.

The Arctic Ocean is unique among the world’s oceans. It is not a broad expanse of open sea as the Atlantic or Pacific oceans but is rather a very large salt water lake with limited access or egress. For centuries explorers believed that sailing north from Europe would allow easy access to the Arctic region and transit from the North Atlantic to the Pacific and Asia. In virtually all cases these efforts ended in tragedy, as with the final voyage of Henry Hudson, when his crew mutinied as he was searching for the Northwest Passage. He and his son John were placed in a small boat and abandoned in Hudson’s Bay in 1611.

More famously the Franklin Expedition of 1845 under British captain Sir John Franklin brought two Royal Navy ships, HMS Terror and HMS Erebus, to an untimely end when both vessels became ice bound in Victoria Strait and all 129 men, including Franklin, perished.

Russia beats Serbia 2-1 to reach Davis Cup semifinals

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Unless Canada , US step up. Russia 's hegemony over Arctic shipping routes is bound to strengthen as long as "It's something Westerners should be concerned about: giving complete hegemony over this Russia is land-locked along much of its territory, making shipping from its Arctic coast "an

The Canada Act 1982 (1982 c. 11; French: Loi de 1982 sur le Canada ) is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which was passed (as stated in the preamble) at the request of the Parliament of Canada , to "patriate" Canada 's constitution

The waters to the north of Siberia, Canada and Alaska are now open in limited periods each year as the ice retreats and limited shipping has started off both Arctic coasts. North of Russia shipping from Europe to Asia now takes place on an intermittent basis. In Canadian Arctic waters, cruise ships have sailed the Northwest Passage on occasion. In both northern sea routes, point-to-point shipping takes place regularly during the summer season.

a boat is docked next to a body of water:  A Russian tanker sailing in the Arctic.© AFP/Getty Images A Russian tanker sailing in the Arctic.

Russia is far ahead of both Canada and the U.S. in creating ice-breaking capacity and particularly in the building of large nuclear-powered icebreakers. Their nuclear propulsion systems allow them to smash through much thicker ice than conventionally powered vessels giving them a full winter capacity to push through the up to three-metre ice encountered at that time of year.

Canada facing renewed pressure from U.S. to meet NATO defence spending benchmark

  Canada facing renewed pressure from U.S. to meet NATO defence spending benchmark The Liberal government is facing renewed political pressure from the administration of U.S. President Donald Trump to increase defence spending to meet the benchmark established by NATO. The Liberal government is facing renewed political pressure from the administration of U.S. President Donald Trump to increase defence spending to meet the Robert O'Brien, the new U.S. national security adviser, said it is an "urgent priority" to get allies across the board to set aside military budgets that are equal to two per cent of the individual country's gross domestic product.

Dr. Bercuson ’s newest book is The Fighting Canadians : Our Regimental History from New France to Afghanistan, published by HarperCollins. Dr. Bercuson is Honorary Lieutenant Colonel of the 41 Combat Engineer Regiment, a Land Force Reserve military engineer unit of the Canadian Forces.

Canada , Denmark, Norway, Russia , and the United States all regard parts of the Arctic seas as national waters (territorial waters out to 12 nautical miles (22 km)) or internal waters. There also are disputes regarding what passages constitute international seaways and rights to passage along them.

Currently the U.S. has two heavy icebreakers that are in their last days of service. The Polar Star and Polar Sea have spent years moored because of the need for extensive modifications and upgrading. The Americans are now pondering the construction of three heavy icebreakers and three medium-sized vessels. The U.S. Coast Guard, which operates American icebreakers, is a branch of the U.S. fighting services (unlike Canada) and thus the new icebreakers would have limited fighting capacity.

Alaska’s two senators, Lisa Murkowski and Dan Sullivan, recently proposed the creation of an Arctic Shipping Federal Advisory Committee to centralize discussions about shipping in Alaskan waters. The committee would make recommendations concerning Arctic ports and would look at one proposal that would create an Arctic “seaway” that would be established and monitored by the U.S. government and would provide icebreaker support for commercial vessels on a fee-for-service basis. This model has been called “Uber for icebreakers” because it would allow ships with little or no icebreaker capacity to sail the waters north of Alaska hiring icebreakers on a “pay-as-you-go” basis.

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Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean

The Personal Property Security Act ("PPSA") is the name given to each of the statutes passed by all common law provinces, as well as the territories, of Canada . They regulate the creation and registration of security interests in all personal property within their respective jurisdictions.

This year Canada released a comprehensive Arctic policy framework that places the emphasis for future development on civilian development. The Canadian policy rightly addresses many issues that impact directly on the citizens of the North. It follows long-established Canadian policy based on the notion that full development of the Arctic’s infrastructure, including services to civilians, will solidify Canadian claims to the Arctic archipelago. It is a wise policy which grows out of the simple idea that Canadian loyalties strengthened by roads, schools, hospitals, municipal services, etc., is the best way to cement the far North to sub-Arctic Canada.

But for the most part the Canadian policy does not address Arctic shipping concerns. That is chiefly because the only way to address these concerns is by spending more money on the Canadian Coast Guard and the Royal Canadian Navy, something that both Liberal and Conservative governments have been reluctant to do. The late Conservative government proposed building the John G. Diefenbaker, a heavy polar icebreaker, but almost no progress has been made toward the actual construction.

The current fleet of Canadian Arctic Offshore Patrol Ships, now under construction, will have limited icebreaking capacity. The delivery date of the first of these ships, HMCS Harry de Wolfe, has just been pushed back to next year.

As a result, in the event of a grounding, or a spill, Canada will have little choice but to ask Ivan for help. This certainly is not a way to reinforce Canadian sovereignty off our Arctic coast.

David J. Bercuson is a fellow of the Canadian Global Affairs Institute and director emeritus of the Centre for Military, Security and Strategic Studies at the University of Calgary.

Trudeau to mark NATO's birthday amid questions about military alliance's future .
LONDON — Prime Minister Justin Trudeau will seek to deflect questions about Canadian defence spending when he meets with fellow NATO leaders starting Tuesday by pointing to Canada's numerous other contributions to the military alliance. Leaders from all 29 NATO member states have started to gather in London to celebrate the 70th birthday of the alliance, which was created at the start of the Cold War to defend North America and Western Europe from the Soviet Union.

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