Health & Fitness: The signs and symptoms of stomach cancer - - PressFrom - United Kingdom
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Health & Fitness The signs and symptoms of stomach cancer

14:50  19 october  2019
14:50  19 october  2019 Source:   netdoctor.co.uk

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Stomach cancer may cause certain signs and symptoms . Since symptoms of stomach cancer often do not appear until the disease is advanced, only about 1 in 5 stomach cancers in the United States is found at an early stage, before it has spread to other areas of the body.

When the signs and symptoms of stomach cancer are not apparent, the disease may reach advanced stages before a diagnosis is made. That’s why it is important that patients considered high risk talk to their doctors about symptoms that may be signs of a stomach tumor.

a close up of a coral: Stomach cancer affects around 8,000 people per year in the UK. Get expert advice on gastric cancer symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. © Getty Images Stomach cancer affects around 8,000 people per year in the UK. Get expert advice on gastric cancer symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

More than 6,000 people in the UK develop stomach cancer, otherwise known as gastric cancer, every year. In the UK stomach cancer is fairly uncommon and the number of new patients each year has halved over the past 30 years. We look at the causes, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment options:

What is stomach cancer?

Woman suffering from abdominal pain © Getty Images Woman suffering from abdominal pain

There are various types of stomach cancer. The most common type is adenocarcinoma which starts in the glandular cells of the lining of the stomach. Other types include squamous cell cancers, lymphomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumours and neuroendocrine tumours. Stomach cancer is very common in Japan, and the Japanese have developed an intensive and effective approach to screening for stomach cancer.

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Stomach cancer , also known as gastric cancer , is a cancer that develops from the lining of the stomach . Early symptoms may include heartburn, upper abdominal pain, nausea and loss of appetite.

Signs and symptoms of gastroesophageal junction cancer and stomach cancer may include The accumulating cancerous cells form a tumor that can invade nearby structures. And cancer cells can break off from the tumor to spread throughout the body.

In the UK, screening is not currently available because it is not safe or cost-effective.

What causes stomach cancer?

The causes of stomach cancer remain unclear.

Stomach cancer is more common in men than women, and its peak age range is between 40 and 60 years old. Possible risk factors include the following:

  • Smoking
  • Being overweight
  • Being blood group A
  • Having persistent infection with the Helicobacter pylori bacteria
Abdominal pain in a man © Getty Images Abdominal pain in a man

Certain stomach conditions such as atrophic gastritis and pernicious anaemia can change the lining of the stomach, and may also be associated with an increased risk of stomach cancer.

While eating lots of fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk of stomach cancer, foods that have been pickled or salted appear to increase the risk.

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Stomach cancer , or gastric cancer , is a buildup of abnormal cells that form a mass in part of the stomach . Individuals with persistent symptoms of stomach cancer should see their doctor as soon as possible. Signs and symptoms of stomach cancer .

For a small number of patients they have inherited a cancer gene that increases their risk of stomach cancer.

What are the symptoms of stomach cancer?

There are a number of symptoms which may indicate something is amiss, including the following:

• Digestion issues

Stomach cancer can cause symptoms such as acid reflux, heartburn and indigestion, but it is important to realise that this is a rare cause of these common symptoms.

Man with indigestion © Getty Images Man with indigestion

• Appetite concerns

Other symptoms may include general fatigue, altered taste, nausea and reduced appetite.

• Bloating

Some patients also experience the feeling of being 'full up' or bloated sooner than usual after eating. Excessive belching can also be a symptom.

• Weight loss

Unexplained weight loss may also be associated with stomach cancer.

Men's feet on a scale © Getty Images Men's feet on a scale

• Pain and discomfort

Patients may also experience a sensation of vague discomfort or even pain if the tumour grows through the stomach wall.

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What Causes Stomach Cancer ? Symptoms . Getting a Diagnosis. Treatment. How Can I Prevent Blood tests to look for signs of cancer in your body. Upper endoscopy. Your doctor will put a thin Stage II. Cancer has spread into deeper layers of the stomach and maybe into nearby lymph nodes.

Stomach cancer , also known as gastric cancer , is one of the most frightening forms of cancer . This type of cancer typically emerges in the mucus-producing cells that line the stomach (called To stay informed on this condition, read about the most common signs and symptoms of stomach cancer …

• Abdominal lump

Slim patients may become aware of a lump in the upper part of the abdomen just below the lower end of the breastbone.

• Tumours

Sometimes tumours can cause obstruction to the outlet of the stomach, which causes vomiting of large volumes of undigested food long after eating.

• Internal bleeding

There may be internal bleeding appearing as blood in the vomit, or black, tar-like, faeces, or the bleeding may be so slight as to pass undetected, If this is the case people may see a doctor because they are tired and pale and are then found to be anaemic.

Young woman with hand over her mouth © Getty Images Young woman with hand over her mouth

Stomach cancer can grow slowly and in this case symptoms may only develop once the disease has spread beyond the stomach, for example to the liver. In this case, the symptoms would be those of cancer involving the liver. If you have concerns about any of these symptoms you should discuss these with your doctor.

How is stomach cancer diagnosed?

There are two main investigations for cancer of the stomach:

  • A Barium meal: which involves swallowing a white, chalky liquid and having a series of X-ray pictures taken of the stomach area in a procedure called gastroscopy.
  • A gastroscopy: during which the inside of the stomach is examined using a camera attached to a flexible tube. A biopsy from the tumour may be taken during this procedure.

How is stomach cancer staged?

Staging is a tool used to determine the extent of the disease as well as the most suitable treatment options. It also gives an indication of prognosis or survival.

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To stage stomach cancer, the main investigation used is a CT or computerised tomography scan, which provides fine detail of your internal organs and allows your doctor to check the rest of your body for evidence of cancer spread.

Diagnostic medical procedure © Diagnostic medical procedure Diagnostic medical procedure

Sometimes, a different type of gastroscopy called an endoscopic ultrasound is performed after the tumour has been diagnosed. An endoscopic ultrasound is carried out in the same way as a gastroscopy, but with the addition of a special ultrasound probe on the tip of the gastroscope. This allows your doctor to determine the depth of invasion of the tumour as well as evidence of spread outside of the stomach.

Some patients need to have other investigations such as a PET scan which measures the activity of any cancer cells in the body, or laparascopy, which is a type of exploratory surgery to look at the outside of the stomach and the nearby organs.

How is stomach cancer treated?

Decisions on the most appropriate treatment vary for each patient and may be influenced by factors including the stage of the cancer, other medical problems and someone's general health.

Surgery is an important treatment for early stomach cancer, and there are various types of operations performed (and may include removing part, or all of the stomach). The cure rate after surgery is about 30 per cent.

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Rear view of woman opening curtains © Getty Images Rear view of woman opening curtains

Chemotherapy, sometimes combined with radiotherapy, can be highly effective against some forms of stomach cancer and may help convert an inoperable tumour into an operable one. Chemotherapy may also be used to reduce or control symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. However, chemotherapy does have various side effects, some of which can be quite toxic. Radiotherapy can also be used to treat some of the symptoms caused by stomach cancer.

What is the outlook when stomach cancer is diagnosed?

Stomach cancer prognosis is still quite poor, mainly because the disease isn't detected until quite late in its course.Statistics from Cancer Research UK indicate a five year survival rate of only 17.6 per cent.

Earlier detection will save lives, and new ways of assessing, particularly in those at high risk, will hopefully improve outcome. 

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Eating a diverse range of plant-based foods, working out how to de-stress and limiting how much sugar you're eating are all big shouts, when it comes to your gut health. And no, they're no silver bullet for a bad lifestyle – but the best probiotics in the game could be helpful here, too. (And of course not forgetting about making room for plenty of funky fermented foods and drinks, like sauerkraut, kimchi and kombucha.)Read: Good Gut Health GuideTangent completed. To swing back to probiotics: while they could be useful, you do need to exercise caution when choosing the right ones for you. Why? Well, some brands of probiotics will not survive for very long in the gut, thanks to how acidic it is in there, or they may contain too few live strains of bacteria to make any real difference. It's also important to note that there is no current scientific consensus on the role of taking a probiotic in managing overall health – although some studies are pretty promising. When it comes to managing IBS, however, there is some research indicating that a specific strain of bacteria, B. infantis, could be helpful in alleviating symptoms, while another study showed that strains including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum were handy for circumnavigating 'traveller's diarrhoea.'How do I choose a good probiotic?If you're up for it, how to choose which one you try? Well, five billion bacteria, or colony-forming units (CFUs) per dose are good for general digestion – but you need more like 20 billion if you’re trying to tackle a bad case of IBS, a panel of experts previously told WH. As ever, though: do speak to your GP before taking any sort of supplement if you have a specific health concern. [We earn a commission for products purchased through some links in this article.]

Last updated: 16-10-19

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