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US NewsFinding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.

16:08  12 august  2019
16:08  12 august  2019 Source:   msn.com

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Amelia Mary Earhart (/ˈɛərhɑːrt/, born July 24, 1897; disappeared July 2, 1937) was an American aviation pioneer and author. Earhart was the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean.

Did Amelia Earhart Survive Plane Crash? Newly Discovered Photo Offers Clues . Using "scaleable objects" in photos of Earhart and examination of the inseam of some of her trousers found in archives, Jantz and another forensic analyst, Jeff Glickman, determined that Earhart was a bit shorter than that

Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue. © The New York Times

Robert Ballard is the finder of important lost things.

In 1985, he discovered the Titanic scattered beneath the Atlantic Ocean. He and his team also located the giant Nazi battleship Bismarck and, more recently, 18 shipwrecks in the Black Sea.

Dr. Ballard has always wanted to find the remains of the plane Amelia Earhart was flying when she disappeared in 1937. But he feared the hunt would be yet another in a long line of futile searches.

“You have it in a holding pattern in your head,” said Dr. Ballard, founder of the Ocean Exploration Trust. “You’re still saying, ‘No, no, it’s too big a search area.’”

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New clues to Amelia Earhart ' s disappearance 00:36. (CNN) Bones found on a remote Pacific island almost eight decades ago likely are those of pioneering pilot Amelia Earhart , new research claims. Jantz used information based on Earhart ' s body measurements compared to the Nikumaroro bones.

Photos: Amelia Earhart crosses the Atlantic. Earhart is escorted from her plane by a policeman in " Amelia Earhart was captured, and taken first to Saipan and then to Tokyo where she was kept The theory held that Earhart ' s secret was used as a bargaining chip after the war to allow the Japanese

Then, a few years ago, another group of explorers found clues so compelling that Dr. Ballard changed his mind. Now, not only is he certain he knows where the plane is, he has set course for a remote atoll in the Pacific island nation of Kiribati to recover it.

Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue. © Amy Sussman/Getty Images Robert Ballard, lead scientist, and Allison Fundis, the expedition leader, discussing the mission at a talk last month in Beverly Hills. “I feel like Leakey handing it off to Jane Goodall,” Dr. Ballard said.

If his expedition succeeds, he’ll not only solve one of the enduring mysteries of the 20th century. The 77-year-old explorer will also be transferring his legacy of discovery to a new generation of oceanic detectives.

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Researchers may have had a breakthrough in the decades-long search for the missing aviator.

Amelia Earhart was an American aviator who set many flying records and championed the They flew to Miami, then down to South America, across the Atlantic to Africa, then east to India and Southeast Asia. According to the crash and sink theory, Earhart ’ s plane ran out of gas while she searched for

Until recently, Dr. Ballard accepted the Navy’s version of Earhart’s fate: On July 2, 1937, near the end of their round-the-world flight, the aviator and her navigator, Fred Noonan, vanished over the Pacific. After a lengthy and costly search, the Navy concluded on July 18, 1937, that the two died shortly after crashing into the ocean.

But in 2012, an old friend presented Dr. Ballard with a startling alternative.

Kurt M. Campbell, who served as assistant secretary of state for East Asian and Pacific affairs in the Obama administration, invited Dr. Ballard to a meeting. The two had known each other since their days in Naval intelligence.

Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue. © Bettmann/Getty Images Ms. Earhart and navigator Fred Noonan, holding a map of the Pacific that shows the route of their last flight.

Mr. Campbell ushered him into his office, Dr. Ballard recalled in a recent interview: “He closed the door, and he said, ‘I want to show you a picture.’”

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A team of researchers investigating the mystery of aviator Amelia Earhart ' s 1937 disappearance believe they may have spotted a piece of wreckage from her plane . The sonar image of debris that may be wreckage from Earhart ' s plane .

Ever since Amelia Earhart ’ s Lockheed Elektra went missing in 1933, various theories about her disappearance have tantalized the American public. A new forensic analysis of remains first found on Gardner Island in 1940 (now known as Nikumaroro) suggests they were mis-categorized by the

First, he offered Dr. Ballard a grainy black-and-white photo. “He said, ‘What do you see?’ I said, ‘I see an island with a ship on a reef?’ And he said, ‘No, look over to the left.’”

As Dr. Ballard squinted at the blur, Mr. Campbell handed him a second, digitally enhanced image. Mr. Campbell said the smudge was landing gear from a Lockheed Model 10-E Electra. And the reef in the picture was part of tiny Nikumaroro Island, in the mostly uninhabited Phoenix Islands.

Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue. © NASA A satellite image of Nikumaroro atoll. It is a mere 4.7 miles long and 1.6 miles wide. There it was, a precise place to look for Earhart’s plane.

“I went, ‘I’ll be damned,’” he said. “‘That really narrows the search, doesn’t it?’”

The old photograph was taken by Eric Bevington, a British colonial officer, in October 1937, three months after Earhart disappeared. Mr. Bevington and his team had scouted Gardner Island, now called Nikumaroro. A British freighter had run aground years before on the northwest corner of the island, and the young officer snapped a picture of it.

Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue. © NASA, via Wikimedia Commons Ms. Earhart and the Lockheed Electra in which she disappeared in July 1937.

Mr. Bevington didn’t know he had also captured something sticking out of the water. The Bevington Object, as it became known, was less than one millimeter long — a tiny speck near the edge of the frame.

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The legendary pilot Amelia Earhart famously disappeared during an ill-fated attempt to fly Earhart ’ s last whereabouts remain unknown, but a new study adds weight to one of the most popular theories about If the bones do not belong to Amelia Earhart , then they are from someone very similar to her.”

Some scientists think Amelia Earhart may have crashed on the island’ s reef on her ill-fated flight to To find out, Glickman and Jantz found a bare-armed photograph of Earhart and then identified the But Ross said she sees several problems with the methods used to come up with the arm-bone ratio

Decades later, an organization called The International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery, or Tighar, received Mr. Bevington’s pictures. The group is a nonprofit organization dedicated to aviation archaeology and aircraft preservation. It has been heavily involved in searching for Earhart at Nikumaroro.

Fascination with Earhart’s disappearance has led to wild theories: that she was an American spy captured by the Japanese, or that she lived out her days after assuming a false identity as a New Jersey housewife.

Those who believe in the crash at Nikumaroro say it was along Earhart’s stated navigational line.

The Navy even followed clues based on distress calls and dispatched the Colorado, a battleship, from Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, to search the Phoenix Islands. But Dr. Ballard and Tighar researchers believe tides would have dragged the plane into deeper waters by the time it arrived at Nikumaroro.

Related: Amelia Earhart - life in pictures (Photos)

Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.

According to the official report, a search pilot saw “signs of recent habitation” there. But because nobody waved them down, the search team left and the Navy dismissed the theory. What the sailors didn’t know was that the island had been uninhabited for 40 years.

Others say it’s unlikely the island was where Earhart’s life ended.

Dorothy Cochrane, curator for general aviation at the National Air and Space Museum, believes that Earhart crashed in the ocean near Howland Island, Earhart’s original destination, hundreds of miles to the northwest.

But in 2010, the notion that the real site may be Nikumaroro got a boost when Jeff Glickman, a forensic imaging expert for Tighar, spotted the blur in the Bevington photo and concluded its shape was consistent with Lockheed Electra landing gear.

Armed with this clue, Richard E. Gillespie, the director of Tighar, reached out to Mr. Campbell, an avid Earhart fan, for a second opinion.

Mr. Campbell shared the photo with experts at the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, who used classified technology to enhance the picture. It was sent to intelligence analysts at the Pentagon, who independently concluded the object looked like the landing gear of a Lockheed Model 10-E Electra, Mr. Campbell said.

So Mr. Campbell called Dr. Ballard to see if he thought it was a good idea to support Mr. Gillespie’s 2012 mission to Nikumaroro, one of a dozen Tighar has made to the island, but the first to search underwater.

Related: 16 of history's greatest unsolved mysteries (Photos)

Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.
Finding Amelia Earhart’s Plane Seemed Impossible. Then Came a Startling Clue.

That expedition was unsuccessful. But the group didn’t have the funding or capabilities of Dr. Ballard and his team. And with his ship, the Nautilus, now in the Pacific Ocean, and its other research obligations completed, Dr. Ballard is ready to focus on the search for Earhart.

“The more I read, the more I was convinced I could do it,” he said.

Beyond his 60 years of experience, Dr. Ballard’s ship is equipped with a suite of high-definition cameras, a 3-D mapping system and remotely operated underwater vehicles, or ROV’s, one of which can descend nearly 20,000 feet.

But that doesn’t mean the expedition will be easy.

Viewed from above, Nikumaroro is small and flat. But the island is only the plateau of a steep underwater mountain rising 10,000 feet from the ocean floor. Earhart landed on the very edge of the island, Dr. Ballard believes. As tides rose, her plane may have slipped down the underwater slope.

The ridges of the mountain are rugged — full of troughs and valleys that can hinder sonar. After using onboard technology to create a 3-D map of its sides, the team will have to search the mountain visually, monitoring video feeds from the ROV’s in 12-hour shifts.

“Imagine searching the side of a volcano at night with a flashlight,” Dr. Ballard said.

Mr. Gillespie fears what’s left of the Electra might be no more than scattered debris. Still, Dr. Ballard’s technology gives him hope. Even those who doubt the Nikumaroro hypothesis think Dr. Ballard’s high-tech search at least may prove Earhart was never there.

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“It’s time to set that theory straight, and hopefully this will do that,” said Dr. Cochrane.

The expedition is being funded by the National Geographic Society, which will record the progress of the Nautilus and its crew for an Oct. 20 television program.

The crew’s efforts will be complemented by a team on the island led by Fredrik Hiebert, the National Geographic Society’s archaeologist-in-residence.

For this expedition, Dr. Ballard will share leadership on the Nautilus with Allison Fundis, a rising explorer he hopes will eventually take his place.

“I feel like Leakey handing it off to Jane Goodall,” he said, referencing her mentor, the paleoanthropologist Louis Leakey.

Dr. Ballard feels strongly about promoting women, especially as the Nautilus searches the ocean for one of history’s great female pioneers. Women make up just over half of the crew of the ship.

Ms. Fundis said she is thrilled to be sharing leadership of the Earhart expedition.

“She just had a remarkable life and was a remarkable person, with a sense of bravery that broke down barriers and expectations at a time when society kind of felt like a woman really shouldn’t or couldn’t accomplish what she did,” she said.

The two explorers are confident they will find the Electra.

“Science explorers are like an ideal gas,” Mr. Ballard joked. “They can expand to fill any volume, but they can only do work under pressure.”

Then he laughed, “And the pressure’s on.”

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