US News: 3 get Nobel Medicine prize for learning how cells use oxygen - - PressFrom - United Kingdom
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US News 3 get Nobel Medicine prize for learning how cells use oxygen

13:40  07 october  2019
13:40  07 october  2019 Source:   msn.com

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Get breaking national and world news, broadcast video coverage, and exclusive interviews. The 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to scientists William G. Kaelin, Jr, Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza for their discoveries of " how cells sense and adapt to oxygen

The 1938 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Corneille Heymans awarded discoveries showing how blood oxygen sensing via the carotid body Gregg Semenza studied the EPO gene and how it is regulated by varying oxygen levels. By using gene-modified mice, specific DNA segments located

FILE - In this Monday, Dec. 10, 2018 file photo, a bust of the Nobel Prize founder, Alfred Nobel on display at the Concert Hall during the Nobel Prize award ceremony in Stockholm. Controversy stalks the Nobel prizes for peace and literature in a way it rarely does for science. The revamped panel at the Swedish Academy who will hand out the Nobel literature prizes Thursday Oct. 10, 2019, for both 2018 and 2019 would relish arguments about the winners, rather than intrigue about the #MeToo scandal that forced the institution to suspend the prize last year. (Henrik Montgomery/Pool Photo via AP, File) © Provided by The Associated Press FILE - In this Monday, Dec. 10, 2018 file photo, a bust of the Nobel Prize founder, Alfred Nobel on display at the Concert Hall during the Nobel Prize award ceremony in Stockholm. Controversy stalks the Nobel prizes for peace and literature in a way it rarely does for science. The revamped panel at the Swedish Academy who will hand out the Nobel literature prizes Thursday Oct. 10, 2019, for both 2018 and 2019 would relish arguments about the winners, rather than intrigue about the #MeToo scandal that forced the institution to suspend the prize last year. (Henrik Montgomery/Pool Photo via AP, File)

STOCKHOLM (AP) — The 2019 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to scientists William G. Kaelin, Jr, Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza for their discoveries of "how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability," the Nobel Committee announced Monday.

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Three scientists who discovered how cells sense and adapt to oxygen levels have won the 2019 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine . Our body's cells use oxygen to convert food into usable energy. The trio - British Sir Peter Ratcliffe and two Americans, William Kaelin and Gregg Semenza

Oxygen is essential for animal life: it is used by the mitochondria present in virtually all animal cells in order to convert food into useful energy. Its Nobel Committee evaluates the nominations. Since 1901 the Nobel Prize has been awarded to scientists who have made the most important discoveries for

The discoveries made by the three men "have fundamental importance for physiology and have paved the way for promising new strategies to fight anemia, cancer and many other diseases," said the Karolinska Institute.

The trio — Kaelin and Semenza are Americans, and Ratcliffe is British — will share equally the 9 million kronor ($918,000) cash award. It is the 110th prize in the category that has been awarded since 1901.

Kaelin works at Harvard, Semenza at Johns Hopkins University and Ratcliffe is at the Francis Crick Institute in Britain.

The winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (L-R) Gregg Semenza of the US, Peter Ratcliffe of Britain and William Kaelin of the US appear on a screen during a press conference at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, on October 7, 2019 © Getty The winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (L-R) Gregg Semenza of the US, Peter Ratcliffe of Britain and William Kaelin of the US appear on a screen during a press conference at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, on October 7, 2019

In announcing the prize, the Nobel Committee said the work by the three laureates has "greatly expanded our knowledge of how physiological response makes life possible." The Committee said that Semenza, Ratcliffe and Kaelin found "the molecular switch for how to adapt" when oxygen levels in the body vary, noting that the most fundamental job for cells is to convert oxygen to food and that cells and tissues constantly experience changes in oxygen availability.

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How cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2019 is awarded to William Kaelin, Jr., Sir Peter In almost all animal cells , the ability to rapidly respond and adapt to variations in oxygen availability is essential. It is clear from studies of molecular taxonomy

Three scientists have shared this year’s Nobel prize in physiology or medicine for discovering how cells use oxygen to burn fuel and help the body maintain and grow new tissues. William Kaelin Jr at Harvard University; Sir Peter Ratcliffe at Oxford University and the Francis Crick Institute in London

Thomas Perlmann, the secretary of the Nobel Committee at the Karolinska Institute, said he was able to call all three laureates Monday. But he reached Kaelin via his sister who gave him two phone numbers — the first one was a wrong number.

"He was really happy," Perlmann told a news conference.

The announcement kicked off Nobel week. The Nobel Physics prize is handed out Tuesday and the following day is the chemistry prize.

Nobel Assembly member Randall Johnson (R) speaks to explain the research field of the winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, on October 7, 2019 © Getty Nobel Assembly member Randall Johnson (R) speaks to explain the research field of the winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden, on October 7, 2019

This year's double-header Literature Prizes — one each for 2018 and 2019 — will be awarded Thursday and the Peace Prize will be announced on Friday.

The economics prize will be awarded on Oct. 14.

The 2018 literature prize was suspended after a scandal rocked the Swedish Academy. The body plans to award it this year, along with announcing the 2019 laureate.

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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was jointly awarded to three winners — William G. Kaelin Jr., Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza — for their work in discovering how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1940. No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/ 3 allocated to the Main Fund and with Otto Fritz Meyerhof “for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”.

Prize founder Alfred Nobel — a Swedish industrialist and the inventor of dynamite — decided the physics, chemistry, medicine and literature prizes should be awarded in Stockholm, and the peace prize in Oslo.

Related: The Nobel Prize's most controversial moments (StarsInsider) 

a drawing of a person: Nobel Prize winner James Watson has been stripped of his title as Chancellor following racist comments he made about intelligence and genetics benefiting some ethnicities and not others. The comments, widely refuted by the scientific community, aren't new from Watson. What's more, he joins a long list of controversial Nobel Prize winners.   From aiding and abetting in warfare to famous snubs, the Nobel Prize has been the subject of heated debate since its inception. Here are some of the wildest controversies to rock the world's grandest award.

He specifically designated the institutions responsible for the prizes: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Nobel Prizes in Physics and Chemistry; the Karolinska Institute is responsible for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; the Swedish Academy picks the Nobel Prize in Literature; and a committee of five people elected by the Norwegian Parliament decides who wins the Nobel Peace Prize.

The economics prize — officially known as the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel — wasn't created by Nobel, but by Riksbanken, Sweden's central bank, in 1968. It is the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences that was tasked with selecting the winner.

Nobel glory this year comes with a 9-million kronor ($918,000) cash award, a gold medal and a diploma. The laureates receive them at elegant ceremonies in Stockholm and Oslo on Dec. 10 — the anniversary of Nobel's death in 1896.

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Scientist, 97, becomes oldest ever winner of Nobel Prize .
Three scientists have taken home the Nobel Prize for Chemistry, including the oldest ever winner. © Imagebridge John Goodenough is the oldest every Nobel winner The trio, John B Goodenough, Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino, share the nine million krona prize (£740,099).Mr Goodenough is the oldest ever winner of a Nobel prize at the age of 97.The three worked together on developing and refining rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, making the age of global information technology, mobile and fossil-fuel free revolutions possible.

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