US News: 'End of history'? 30 years on, does that idea still hold up? - - PressFrom - United Kingdom
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US News 'End of history'? 30 years on, does that idea still hold up?

03:41  18 november  2019
03:41  18 november  2019 Source:   msn.com

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Eighteen years later, the United States is still there. The Iraq War was based on false intelligence that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein President George W. Bush declares the end of major combat in Iraq as he speaks aboard the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln off the California coast on May 1, 2003.

Eighteen years later, the United States is still there. The Iraq War was based on false intelligence that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, backed by One of the darker historical ironies of the past 30 years — primarily in Europe — has been the shift by once-communist states to the far right, in some cases

FILE - In this Nov. 13, 1989, file photo, East German border guards stand in front of segments of the Berlin Wall, which were removed to open the wall at Potsdamer Platz passage in Berlin. Months before the Berlin Wall fell on Nov. 9, 1989, with the Soviet stranglehold over the Eastern Bloc crumbling, a young political scientist named Francis Fukuyama made a declaration that quickly became famous. It was, he declared, “the end of history.” (AP Photo/John Gaps III, File) © Provided by The Associated Press FILE - In this Nov. 13, 1989, file photo, East German border guards stand in front of segments of the Berlin Wall, which were removed to open the wall at Potsdamer Platz passage in Berlin. Months before the Berlin Wall fell on Nov. 9, 1989, with the Soviet stranglehold over the Eastern Bloc crumbling, a young political scientist named Francis Fukuyama made a declaration that quickly became famous. It was, he declared, “the end of history.” (AP Photo/John Gaps III, File)

LONDON (AP) — Months before the Berlin Wall fell on Nov. 9, 1989, with the Soviet stranglehold over the Eastern Bloc crumbling, a young political scientist named Francis Fukuyama made a declaration that quickly became famous. It was, he declared, "the end of history."

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Eighteen years later, the United States is still there. Related: Defining images from 9/11 (Reuters). The Iraq War was based on false intelligence that Iraqi Looking back from today, Fukuyama still thinks the Berlin Wall's fall was, on balance, a huge gain for human freedom. One of the darker historical

It was, he declared, "the end of history ." Looking back from today, Fukuyama still thinks the Berlin Wall’s fall was, on balance, a huge gain for human freedom. One of the darker historical ironies of the past 30 years — primarily in Europe — has been the shift by once-communist states to the far right, in

But the heralded defeat of Communism didn't usher in a lasting golden age for Western, capitalist-driven liberalism. Far from it.

Related: When the Wall fell (Reuters)

a group of people that are talking on the phone: An East Berlin citizen embraces a West Berlin woman while an East German border soldier watches on at the border checkpoint Invalidenstrasse after the opening of the East German border was announced in Berlin, November 9, 1989. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch

In the decades since, seismic events, movements and global patterns have shaped the 21st century into a splintered, perhaps more dangerous era than the Cold War.

FILE - In this March 1, 2018, file photo, journalists watch as Russian President Vladimir Putin gives his annual state of the nation address in Manezh in Moscow, Russia. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, File) © Provided by The Associated Press FILE - In this March 1, 2018, file photo, journalists watch as Russian President Vladimir Putin gives his annual state of the nation address in Manezh in Moscow, Russia. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, File) The 9/11 attacks happened; the Iraq and Syria wars helped produce the bloody emergence of the Islamic State group and, later, a refugee crisis. The economy tanked in 2008. China became a superpower. Russia resurged. A new populism took root.

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In 2018, Putin — still in power, still a risk-taker — boasted of the development of new nuclear weapons that have no equivalent in the West. President George W. Bush declares the end of major combat in Iraq as he speaks aboard the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln off the California coast on May 1

Eighteen years later, the United States is still there. Related: Defining images from 9/11 (Reuters). The Iraq War was based on false intelligence that Iraqi Looking back from today, Fukuyama still thinks the Berlin Wall's fall was, on balance, a huge gain for human freedom. One of the darker historical

FILE - In this May 1, 2003, file photo, President George W. Bush declares the end of major combat in Iraq as he speaks aboard the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln off the California coast. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite, File) © Provided by The Associated Press FILE - In this May 1, 2003, file photo, President George W. Bush declares the end of major combat in Iraq as he speaks aboard the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln off the California coast. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite, File) All have had a transcendent impact. History, it seemed, didn't "end."

Watch: How the legacy of the Stasi lives on, three decades after collapse of Berlin Wall (Independent)

Today, Fukuyama acknowledges that some developments over the decades have disappointed him. He says his book wasn't a prediction, but an acknowledgement that many more democracies were coming into existence.

In this Oct. 15, 2019, photo, Berlin Wall political scientist Francis Fukuyama works at his desk at Stanford University in Stanford, Calif. Months before the fall of the Berlin Wall on Nov. 9, 1989, with Soviet power and its stranglehold over the eastern European bloc crumbling, Fukuyama made a declaration that quickly became famous. It was, he declared, “the end of history.” (AP Photo/Haven Daley) © Provided by The Associated Press In this Oct. 15, 2019, photo, Berlin Wall political scientist Francis Fukuyama works at his desk at Stanford University in Stanford, Calif. Months before the fall of the Berlin Wall on Nov. 9, 1989, with Soviet power and its stranglehold over the eastern European bloc crumbling, Fukuyama made a declaration that quickly became famous. It was, he declared, “the end of history.” (AP Photo/Haven Daley) Now the world is in a phase he didn't anticipate. In a recent interview with The Associated Press, Fukuyama took time to reflect on some of what he has seen — and what could still happen.

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The world is more splintered and perhaps dangerous 30 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of the Cold war which political scientist Francis Eighteen years later, the United States is still there. The Iraq War was based on false intelligence that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, backed by

Eighteen years later, the United States is still there. The Iraq War was based on false intelligence that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, backed by One of the darker historical ironies of the past 30 years — primarily in Europe — has been the shift by once-communist states to the far right, in some cases

___

AFTER THE WALL: THE FIRST YEARS

With the passage of the decades, Fukuyama says, now "you have a whole generation of people who didn't experience the Cold War or Communism."

Related: Fall of the Berlin Wall: Images from the past blended with the present (Photos)

In those initial years after the wall came down, new countries were born and Germany reunified. But wars and conflicts also erupted after the Soviet Union collapsed and postcolonial debt-settling spiked.

FILE - In this June 10, 1996, file photo, Russian President Boris Yeltsin dances at a rock concert after arriving in Rostov, Russia. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, File) © Provided by The Associated Press FILE - In this June 10, 1996, file photo, Russian President Boris Yeltsin dances at a rock concert after arriving in Rostov, Russia. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko, File) Some of the 1990s' bloodiest civil wars — Congo, Liberia — became footnotes to history. Rwanda endured a genocide that killed hundreds of thousands. Yugoslavia, ripped asunder by sustained violence, massacres and displacement, produced far more coverage and even new nations.

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It was, he declared, "the end of history ." But the heralded defeat of Communism didn't usher in a lasting golden age for Western, capitalist-driven liberalism. In 2018, Putin — still in power, still a risk-taker — boasted of the development of new nuclear weapons that have no equivalent in the West.

LONDON — Months before the Berlin Wall fell on Nov. 9, 1989, with the Soviet stranglehold over the Eastern Bloc crumbling, a young political scientist named Francis Fukuyama made a declaration that quickly became famous. It was, he declared, "the end of history .".

Western military intervention at the end of the 1990s blunted Serbia's nationalism and unshackled Kosovo. A weakened Russia was in no position to help its traditional ally in Belgrade. But the global economy was generally strong.

Then came 9/11.

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THE EARLY 21ST CENTURY: TECTONIC SHIFTS

Al-Qaida took terror to a never-before-seen level that was watched in real-time around the world. In response, the Bush administration invaded Afghanistan and ousted the Taliban, which had hosted Osama bin Laden as he plotted against the West. Eighteen years later, the United States is still there.

Related: Defining images from 9/11 (Reuters)

a train on a track with smoke coming out from under a bridge: The second tower of the World Trade Center bursts into flames after being hit by a hijacked airplane in New York September 11, 2001. REUTERS/Sara K. Schwittek

The Iraq War was based on false intelligence that Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein, backed by the U.S. when he fought Iran, possessed weapons of mass destruction. Washington pushed a "you're either with us or against us" global outreach that backfired in some places — most notably in Britain, where then-Prime Minister Tony Blair remains a political outcast to this day for following Bush.

Fukuyama was once aligned with neo-conservatives and supported the Iraq invasion, but later declared his opposition to the war. Now, he says the Iraq war undermined American policy around the world, while the 2008 financial crisis undercut the U.S. claim that it had established a good economic international order.

Says Fukuyama: "I think those two events paved the way for a lot of the populist backlash that we're seeing now."

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POPULISM AND THE CULT OF PERSONALITY

Fukuyama says he's dismayed so many voters could choose divisive populist leaders who lack a formula for governing democratically.

A marriage of populism and nationalism is a dominant dynamic now in many places — from Trump's "America First" to Brexit, from Israel's refusal to give up settlements in occupied Palestinian territory to India's accelerated crackdown in disputed Kashmir and Turkey's recent invasion of Syria.

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Fukuyama says the populist leader's playbook typically goes something like this: "I represent you, the people. You are pure and the elites are corrupt, and I need to eliminate them from our political system."

But Fukuyama says he still believes that the checks and balances in democracies' long-established institutions will continue to work.

Populism, he argues, isn't conducive to good governance — or, necessarily, prosperity. "Launching a trade war ... doesn't seem like a very good idea for continued prosperity," he says. "It could be that these types of movements will be self-limiting in the future."

___

SYRIA, THE ISLAMIC STATE AND THE GLOBAL REFUGEE CRISIS

The ruinous civil war in Syria, in its ninth year, began with an uprising against President Bashar Assad as part of the ill-fated 2011 Arab Spring that deposed autocrats but replaced them with more dictatorship, war and chaos.

The Syrian conflict brought suffering of a monstrous magnitude: hundreds of thousands killed, millions displaced and the rise of the barbaric Islamic State group, which at one point controlled vast swaths of both Syria and Iraq and carried out terror attacks across Europe.

Related: Countries where IS is still a major threat (Reuters)

a man standing on top of a snow covered bridge: Driven from its self-styled caliphate in Iraq and Syria, Islamic State is down but not out. Where once they confronted armies, the extremist Islamist group's adherents have now staged hit-and-run raids and suicide attacks. In some cases, the group has claimed responsibility for atrocities, including the bombings of churches and hotels in Sri Lanka that killed at least 359 people. Its involvement is not always proven, but even if the link is ideological rather than operational, Islamic State still poses a security threat in many countries. The following are 10 nations where Islamic State is still a risk. Pictured: A member of the Syrian Democratic Forces calls his comrades during the fighting with Islamic State fighters in Raqqa, Syria, August 14, 2017. REUTERS/Zohra Bensemra

A byproduct of IS' rise was the global refugee crisis and the flight of persecuted millions on a scale not seen since World War II.

To Fukuyama, the rapid rise in migration produced cultural backlash and an anti-immigrant feeling that was exploited by "a lot of pretty opportunistic politicians who saw this as a big opportunity to mobilize new sources of support for themselves."

___

THE RESURGENCE OF RUSSIA

The road from the dissolution of the Soviet Union to today's powerful Russia has been messy and not without its initial humiliations for Moscow.

Boris Yeltsin's years in power after Mikhail Gorbachev's ouster as the last Soviet leader were characterized by a freewheeling approach to the free market which introduced kleptocracy, the selling off of state industries and the era of oligarchs, mafia and defeat in the first Chechnya war.

Related: 21 things to know about Putin (Photos)

Then, on the stroke of the new millennium, Vladimir Putin came to power as a counterbalance to the Western liberalism he so often rails against.

On his watch, a second war with Chechnya killed thousands. Russia invaded Georgia and annexed Crimea from Ukraine after backing Russian separatists.

With fresh dominance in its own backyard, Russia began to look further afield, most notably meddling in the U.S. election, which some say helped Trump reach the White House.

In 2018, Putin — still in power, still a risk-taker — boasted of the development of new nuclear weapons that have no equivalent in the West. They came, he said, in response to U.S. withdrawal from a Cold War-era treaty banning missile defenses and U.S. efforts to develop a missile defense system. "No one has listened to us," he said. "You listen to us now."

Fukuyama says of Putin: He "has created a form of Russian nationalism that is dependent on empire, (on) his control of all of the countries surrounding Russia. He feels that he is basically at war with the West. This is a hangover from Soviet times because that is the world he grew up in."

___

CHINA THE SUPERPOWER

FILE - In this Oct. 1, 2019, file photo, participants cheer beneath a large portrait of Chinese President Xi Jinping during a parade to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the founding of Communist China in Beijing. (AP Photo/Mark Schiefelbein, File) © Provided by The Associated Press FILE - In this Oct. 1, 2019, file photo, participants cheer beneath a large portrait of Chinese President Xi Jinping during a parade to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the founding of Communist China in Beijing. (AP Photo/Mark Schiefelbein, File) China's authoritarian grip on anything it perceives as its internal affairs, from mass detentions and abuse of Muslims in Xinjiang Province to its no-patience approach to Hong Kong protesters, continues unabated.

Beijing's rise in the last three decades has redrawn the geopolitical map. Its financial clout, its attempts to extend its footprint with its Belt and Road Initiative and unresolved trade issues with the United States make it a wildcard more than ever.

Fukuyama says China's increased wealth and power is upending the international system — no matter how that power is used. But, he notes, since Xi Jinping came to power, China has moved in "a much more authoritarian direction."

The new landscape, he says, "has led to the current deterioration of U.S.-China relations. And I'm afraid that's a situation that is going to persist even if you had a different (U.S.) administration in power."

___

FROM 1989 TO 2019: THE BIG SWEEP

Looking back from today, Fukuyama still thinks the Berlin Wall's fall was, on balance, a huge gain for human freedom.

One of the darker historical ironies of the past 30 years — primarily in Europe — has been the shift by once-communist states to the far right, in some cases embracing ideologies not far from fascism. But despite "worries about countries like Hungary and Poland," Fukuyama believes they are still much better off than under a communist dictatorship.

Many people don't quite understand how being part of the European Union, for example, has afforded them peace and stability that didn't exist before.

Today, Fukuyama looks to other uprisings — protest movements in Hong Kong, Algeria and Sudan, for example — and says he holds out hope for a new moment when history might encounter another crossroads.

He calls it the "spirit of 1989."

___

EDITOR'S NOTE — Tamer Fakahany is AP's deputy director for global news coordination and has helped direct international coverage for the AP for 16 years. Follow him on Twitter a https://twitter.com/tamerfakahany

___

Associated Press journalist Haven Daley in San Francisco contributed to this report.

Parents have 'lost faith' in scandal-hit Glasgow hospital claims MSP .
Scottish Labour's health spokesperson Monica Lennon's claim follows accusations of a cover up over the deaths of two children linked to contaminated water in 2017. The Daily Record previously reported how three-year old Mason Djemat’s death is being probed by police.Video: Kilmberly Darroch who died at the Queen Elizabeth University Hospital in Glasgow (Daily Record) Your browser does not support this video require(["binding"], function (binding) { binding("wcVideoPlayer", "#video_player_418215f2-7cc7-47f1-93b0-3569ffa1d924").

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