US News: Astronomers Detect Violent Cosmic Explosion Which Is Brightest Source of High-energy Light in the Universe - - PressFrom - United Kingdom
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US News Astronomers Detect Violent Cosmic Explosion Which Is Brightest Source of High-energy Light in the Universe

04:40  21 november  2019
04:40  21 november  2019 Source:   newsweek.com

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An international team of astronomers have identified the brightest known source of high - energy light in the universe —a violent cosmic explosion which Gamma ray bursts were first detected in the late 1960s by satellites which were being used to monitor nuclear testing across the planet.

Two violent explosions in galaxies billions of light -years away recently produced the brightest light in the universe . Scientists caught it in action for But the earlier detection was still notable because the flow of high - energy light came 10 hours after the initial explosion . The light lasted for another

a star filled sky: Gamma-ray bursts can be triggered by the explosion of a dying, massive star, collapsing into a black hole. From the vicinity of the black hole, powerful jets shoot in opposite directions into space, accelerating electrically charged particles, which in turn interact with magnetic fields and radiation to produce gamma rays. © DESY, Science Communication Lab Gamma-ray bursts can be triggered by the explosion of a dying, massive star, collapsing into a black hole. From the vicinity of the black hole, powerful jets shoot in opposite directions into space, accelerating electrically charged particles, which in turn interact with magnetic fields and radiation to produce gamma rays.

An international team of astronomers have identified the brightest known source of high-energy light in the universe—a violent cosmic explosion which took place in a galaxy seven billion light-years away.

The light was produced by a so-called gamma ray burst (GRB)—the most powerful explosions in the cosmos which occur as a result of cataclysmic events. These can include the collapse of massive stars as supernovae or the merging of neutron stars or black holes.

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Astronomers have spotted the highest - energy radiation ever seen from the most powerful cosmic explosion in the universe . Such blasts are the most intensely energetic phenomenon in the universe , suddenly appearing in the sky for only a brief period but releasing the same amount of

A violent explosion in a distant galaxy has broken the record for the brightest source of high - energy light in the Universe . Artist Impression: The MAGIC Telescopes detected the highest - energy gamma-rays from a Gamma-Ray-Burst following the alerts issued by Swift and Fermi.

GRBs produce an initial rapid flash of gamma rays—the most high-energy form of light with the shortest wavelength—which usually lasts for a few seconds or minutes.

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This initial burst is typically followed by a longer-lived "afterglow" consisting of longer wavelengths of light—such as X-rays, ultraviolet, optical, infrared, microwave and radio—which can be observed for several minutes, months or even years.

Gamma ray bursts are incredibly powerful events. In fact, a typical GRB event lasting just a few seconds or minutes produces about the same energy as our sun does over the course of its entire multi-billion-year lifecycle. This is why GRBs can be detected across such vast distances.

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They were designed to detect high - energy radiation called gamma rays, which are produced in nuclear Astronomers are learning that even in human timescales, the cosmos is an explosive and "They're the brightest , most powerful explosions in the Universe ," says Andrew MacFadyen

It makes this the brightest known source of TeV photons in the universe .' Gamma ray bursts (GRBs), energetic jets of gamma rays that come from black It is hoped many more bursts will be detected at very high energies in the future to reveal more information about these powerful cosmic explosions .

The latest GRB event (dubbed GRB 190114C) was detected by two space satellites—the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope—on January 14, 2019, according to a study published in the journal Nature involving more than 300 scientists from across the globe.

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Within 22 seconds of the initial detection, the coordinates of GRB 190114C were shared with astronomers around the world, including operators of the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes in Spain's Canary Islands.

"The telescopes were able to observe the burst within 50 seconds of it appearing in the sky," Razmik Mirzoyan, a spokesperson for MAGIC, said in a statement.

These observations with the MAGIC telescopes revealed photons—or particles of light—from the afterglow of the GRB with an energy between 0.2 and 1 teraelectron volts (TeV.) According to the researchers, this is the highest energy radiation every detected in a gamma ray burst.

The Rosette Nebula (NGC 2237, Caldwell 49) is the large hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen gas cloud in the constellation of Monoceros. The open star cluster NGC 2244 (Caldwell 50) consists of stars being formed from the nebula. The nebula is 5,200 light years away from Earth. Amateur image, total exposure time: 15h45m, HST palette image. The Rosette Nebula (NGC 2237, Caldwell 49) is the large hydrogen, sulfur and oxygen gas cloud in the constellation of Monoceros. The open star cluster NGC 2244 (Caldwell 50) consists of stars being formed from the nebula. The nebula is 5,200 light years away from Earth. Amateur image, total exposure time: 15h45m, HST palette image.

"It's a trillion times more energetic than visible light," Gemma Anderson, one of the authors of the study from the Curtin University division of the International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research in Australia, said in a statement. "It makes GRB 190114C the brightest known source of TeV photons in the universe."

After the initial observations, other telescopes around the world followed up in order to identify the origin of the GRB and determine its other characteristics. This data enabled the researchers to describe the probable mechanism behind the emission.

"We assume a two-stage process," Konstancja Satalecka, another author of the study, told Newsweek. "In the first step fast, electrically charged particles from the explosion cloud are deflected in the strong magnetic fields and emit so-called synchrotron radiation, which is of the same nature as the radiation that can be produced in synchrotrons or other particle accelerators on Earth."

High resolution, low noise picture by multi-panel stitching. High resolution, low noise picture by multi-panel stitching.

"However, these photons are not able to reach the very high energies observed," she said. "Only in the second step, when they collide with the fast particles that generated them, they are boosted to very high gamma-ray energies."

Gamma ray bursts were first detected in the late 1960s by satellites which were being used to monitor nuclear testing across the planet.

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