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US News Arrokoth, the Farthest, Oldest Solar System Object Ever Studied, Could Reveal the Origins of Planets

06:30  14 february  2020
06:30  14 february  2020 Source:   mentalfloss.com

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Located past Pluto, the ultrared binary object Arrokoth is the farthest and oldest body ever studied up close. A trip to the most remote part of our solar system has revealed some surprising insights into the formation of If this is the origin of Arrokoth , it was likely the origin of other planetesimals

You can view these stereo images that reveal the distance of the stars from their backgrounds, as seen by New Horizons. On the left is Proxima Centauri and on the right is Wolf 359. Studying Arrokoth can shed light on how the building blocks of planets , called planetesimals, formed in our solar system .

(Video by The Independent)

A trip to the most remote part of our solar system has revealed some surprising insights into the formation of our own planet. Three new studies based on data gathered on NASA's flyby of Arrokoth—the farthest object in the solar system from Earth and the oldest body ever studied—is giving researchers a better idea of how the building blocks of planets were formed, what Arrokoth's surface is made of, and why it looks like a giant circus peanut.

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The unusually-shaped object named Arrokoth - the most distant body ever explored by man - was discovered 4.1 billion miles from Earth by NASA's A snowman-shaped space rock that formed more 4.6billion years ago and predates every planet in the Solar System may have sparked life on earth

Arrokoth — named after a Native American word meaning "sky" in the Powhatan/Algonquian language — is the farthest object in the solar system we've ever visited. A year ago, NASA's space probe New Horizons zipped past the tiny space rock in the Kuiper Belt, a ring of primitive objects about 50 times

Arrokoth is a 21-mile-wide space object that formed roughly 4 billion years ago. Located past Pluto in the Kuiper Belt, it's received much less abuse than other primordial bodies that sit in asteroid belts or closer to the sun. "[The objects] that form there have basically been unperturbed since the beginning of the solar system," William McKinnon, lead author of one of the studies, said at a news briefing.

  Arrokoth, the Farthest, Oldest Solar System Object Ever Studied, Could Reveal the Origins of Planets © NASA/Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory/Southwest Research Institute/Roman Tkachenk... That means, despite its age, Arrokoth doesn't look much different today than when it first came into being billions of years ago, making it the perfect tool for studying the origins of planets.

In 2019, the NASA spacecraft New Horizons performed a flyby of Arrokoth on the edge of the solar system 4 billion miles away from Earth. The probe captured a binary object consisting of two connected lobes that were once separate fragments. In their paper, McKinnon and colleagues explain that Arrokoth "is the product of a gentle, low-speed merger in the early solar system."

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It’s red, it’s cold, it’s 4bn years old : Nasa data from Arrokoth reveals ‘profound truths’ about the solar system . Nasa has unveiled details of the most distant object visited by a spacecraft, in observations that could resolve a decades-long puzzle of how the planets first emerged from the hazy dust of the

The formation and evolution of the Solar System began 4.5 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant molecular cloud.

Prior to these new findings, there were two competing theories into how the solid building blocks of planets, or planetesimals, form. The first theory is called hierarchical accretion, and it states that planetesimals are created when two separate parts of a nebula—the cloud of gas and space dust born from a dying star—crash into one another.

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The latest observations of Arrokoth support the second theory: Instead of a sudden, violent collision, planetesimals form when gases and particles in a nebula gradually amass to the point where they become too dense to withstand their own gravity. Nearby components meld together gradually, and a planetesimal is born. "All these particles are falling toward the center, then whoosh, they make a big planetesimal. Maybe 10, 20, 30, 100 kilometers across," said McKinnon, a professor of Earth and planetary sciences at Washington University. This type of cloud collapse typically results in binary shapes rather than smooth spheroids, hence Arrokoth's peanut-like silhouette.

If this is the origin of Arrokoth, it was likely the origin of other planetesimals, including those that assembled Earth. "This is how planetesimal formation took place across the Kuiper Belt, and quite possibly across the solar system," New Horizons principal investigator Alan Stern said at the briefing.

The first color image of Ultima Thule, 20-mile-long (32-km-long) space rock, taken by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, taken at a distance of 85,000 miles (137,000 kilometers) at 4:08 GMT on January 1, 2019, highlights its reddish surface in this image released by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, U.S., on January 2, 2019. © Thomson Reuters The first color image of Ultima Thule, 20-mile-long (32-km-long) space rock, taken by NASA's New Horizons spacecraft, taken at a distance of 85,000 miles (137,000 kilometers) at 4:08 GMT on January 1, 2019, highlights its reddish surface in this image released by Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, U.S., on January 2, 2019. The package of studies, published in the journal Science, also includes findings on the look and substance of Arrokoth. In their paper, Northern Arizona University planetary scientist Will Grundy and colleagues reveal that the surface of the body is covered in "ultrared" matter so thermodynamically unstable that it can't exist at higher temperatures closer to the sun.

The ultrared color is a sign of the presence of organic substances, namely methanol ice. Grundy and colleagues speculate that the frozen alcohol may be the product of water and methane ice reacting with cosmic rays. New Horizons didn't detect any water on the body, but the researchers say its possible that H2O was present but hidden from view. Other unidentified organic compounds were also found on Arrokoth.

New Horizon's flyby of Pluto and Arrokoth took place over the course of a few days. To gain a further understanding of how the object formed and what it's made of, researchers need to find a way to send a probe to the Kuiper Belt for a longer length of time, perhaps by locking it into the orbit of a larger body. Such a mission could tell us even more about the infancy of the solar system and the composition of our planetary neighborhood's outer limits.

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