Health & Fit: The MMR vaccine covers mumps and rubella, too. Are outbreaks of these next? - PressFrom - US
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Health & FitThe MMR vaccine covers mumps and rubella, too. Are outbreaks of these next?

23:40  11 february  2019
23:40  11 february  2019 Source:   popsci.com

Measles surged globally due to 'gaps' in vaccine coverage, health agencies say

Measles surged globally due to 'gaps' in vaccine coverage, health agencies say Measles cases around the world surged by 31 percent from 2016 to 2017, according to a new report published jointly by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. require(["medianetNativeAdOnArticle"], function (medianetNativeAdOnArticle) { medianetNativeAdOnArticle.getMedianetNativeAds(true); }); Measles outbreaks occurred in all regions, WHO said, because of gaps in vaccine coverage. There were an estimated 110,000 deaths due to measles in 2017.

Measles , mumps , and rubella vaccine viruses are not transmitted from the vaccinated person, so You do not need measles , mumps , and rubella ( MMR ) vaccine if you meet any of these criteria How Can Parents Pay For MMR Vaccine ? Most health insurance plans cover the cost of vaccines .

Measles , mumps , and rubella are viral diseases that can have serious consequences. Before vaccines , these diseases were very common A person who has ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction after a dose of MMR vaccine , or has a severe allergy to any part of this vaccine , may be

The MMR vaccine covers mumps and rubella, too. Are outbreaks of these next?© John Vachon A little girl gets a vaccination, this time for typhoid.

Even as parents literally rally to maintain the right not to vaccinate their kids, thousands of others are rushing to get the MMR shot in the midst of the measles outbreaks in Washington, Oregon, and Texas. Pockets of low vaccination rates have allowed these bursts of disease to emerge, but so far it’s really only measles we’re seeing.

Rubella made a brief appearance at an auto show in Detroit, and mumps has emerged in an ICE detention center in Houston. But those diseases aren’t spreading the way measles is, despite the fact that in the U.S. all three are combined into the MMR vaccine. In theory, immunity to these diseases should be equal. So why aren’t we seeing swaths of rubella in the news?

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The MMR vaccine is a vaccine against measles , mumps , and rubella (German measles). The first dose is generally given to children around 9 to 15 months of age

MMR vaccine is safe and effective at preventing measles , mumps , and rubella . Get the facts and the latest CDC safety studies on MMR vaccine . There have been three published reports of this complication happening to vaccinated people. In these cases, encephalitis developed between 4 and

More contagious diseases require higher thresholds for herd immunity

If a person with measles sneezed in a room, then left, and you walked in an hour later with no vaccination or immunity, you’d likely catch the virus. In a population of totally unimmunized people, every individual with measles would pass it on to roughly 12 to 18 people. That’s pretty darn infectious. Mumps and rubella aren’t quite so contagious; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention compares them to influenza on the contagion scale. Both diseases are spread through droplets in the air like measles, but either the virus doesn’t stick around as long or it’s not as effective at causing disease once inside the human body.

Information like this goes into the calculation that infectious disease researchers perform in order to figure out herd immunity thresholds. That’s how many people in a population need vaccinations to prevent transmission of the virus. The actual calculations involve a lot of complex modeling of how viruses move in a community, but eventually, they land on an estimation of R0. That's the number of people someone with the disease will likely spread it to—for measles, it’s that 12 to 18 figure. To find your herd immunity threshold (and again, this is a simplification), you essentially subtract 1/R0 from 1. The resulting fraction is the fraction of people who need to get vaccinated. So for measles, we’d do something like 1-(1/18), which is 0.94 or 94 percent. You get the idea.

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and rubella ( MMR ) vaccine is a freeze-dried preparation containing live attenuated measles , mumps It provides protection for approximately 90% of recipients for measles and mumps and over 95 of Medicine dealing with MMR doses during outbreaks of mumps [2]. Mumps outbreaks may

Single mumps and rubella vaccines are no longer manufactured anywhere in the world. The MMR vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women as a matter of caution. However, there are no known risks associated with receiving the MMR vaccine during pregnancy or just before pregnancy.

The R0 values for mumps and rubella are lower (there are a lot of estimates) mostly because they’re not as contagious. Around 85 to 90 percent vaccination is required for mumps, with a similar range for rubella. So far, the U.S. is holding steady above 90 percent vaccination rates for the MMR shot, which means measles is the only one for which we’ve dipped below the threshold.

The MMR vaccine covers mumps and rubella, too. Are outbreaks of these next?© Infographic by Sara Chodosh non medical exemptions vaccines counties

Data from the most recent school year available, generally 2016-17 (2015-16 for a small number of counties)

Vaccines aren’t perfect and populations aren’t random

We mentioned before that the calculations to determine the vaccine threshold are complicated. Part of what makes them complicated is that modeling how a virus moves through a population means making assumptions. Are the vaccinated people evenly distributed throughout, for instance, or are there areas with lower rates of immunity? So when we say 95 percent of people need to be vaccinated in order to prevent the spread of measles, that’s just a general guideline. Even if 95 percent of the global population were immune to the measles virus, pockets of people with no immunity could allow the disease to spread. And, indeed, that’s exactly what’s happening in the Pacific Northwest, New York, and Texas.

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Measles , mumps , and rubella are viral diseases that can be life-threatening in extreme cases. These three diseases are all very contagious and mostly affect infants, children and young adults. The measles , mumps , rubella vaccine ( MMR vaccine ) is one vaccine that protects against all three

The MMR vaccine protects against three viral infections: measles , mumps and rubella . Measles , mumps and rubella are all viral infections that caused widespread illness. This is particularly important for infants who are too young to receive the vaccine .

On top of human populations not being perfectly randomized, our vaccines aren’t perfect either. Two shots of the MMR vaccine are 97 percent effective against measles, for instance, but only 88 percent effective against mumps. So in theory, if 100 people get the MMR shot, three of them could still get measles if exposed to the virus, and 12 could get mumps. Not everyone will respond ideally to the virus inside the vaccine. Some small outbreaks of mumps have occurred in fully vaccinated individuals due to low vaccine efficacy. (Waning immunity has also caused some outbreaks in places like Scotland.) Rubella is a bit more complicated. One dose is 78 percent effective across a whole population, but some people get excellent immunity and others don’t. If you’re one of the non-responders, a second dose doesn’t seem to help you.

The point is that these vaccine efficacies go into the calculation for how many people need to get the shot. Mumps isn’t as contagious as measles, but because the vaccine isn’t as good at providing protection, more people need to get the shot in order for herd immunity to be sufficient. This is, by the way, the same reason you should definitely get your flu shot—influenza vaccines are notoriously ineffective, which means far more people need to get them for herd immunity to work.

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Mumps can be prevented with MMR vaccine . This protects against three diseases: measles , mumps , and rubella . Before the U.S. mumps vaccination program started in 1967, mumps was a universal disease of Mumps outbreaks can still occur in highly vaccinated U.S. communities, particularly in

The three diseases covered by the MMR vaccine -- measles , mumps , and rubella -- are highly contagious. Viruses cause all three of these illnesses Measles outbreaks often happen in countries without strong childhood immunization programs. But outbreaks have also happened in Europe

Just because we haven’t had outbreaks yet doesn’t mean we won’t

Two decades ago, the U.S. declared measles eliminated from the country. We were on our way to having virtually no cases—all instances of the disease came from international travel, and high vaccination rates at home meant they could quickly be contained. The fact that we are now heading toward another year of increasing measles cases suggests that we could be reversing the trend. There's no reason to assume that mumps and rubella won't make a resurgence if things continue in this direction.

Related Video: What You Need to Know About the Measles (Provided by USA Today)

Hundreds protest against Washington state vaccine bill that would require measles shots.
The bill would not allow parents to opt out of measles, mumps and rubella vaccine for their school-age children.

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