Health & Fit: Doctors 'very alarmed' by spread of deadly yeast infection - - PressFrom - US
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Health & FitDoctors 'very alarmed' by spread of deadly yeast infection

23:25  27 march  2019
23:25  27 march  2019 Source:   consumerreports.org

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Yeast infections can be very irritating and uncomfortable. A vaginal yeast infection , which is also sometimes called vulvovaginal candidiasis, happens when the healthy yeast that normally lives in your vagina grows out of control. They aren’t contagious, and can’t spread to another person during sex.

Candida auris, a deadly yeast infection , shows signs of being drug-resistant and can be deadly . This has a very high mortality, and it's hard to treat, which is concerning. The most alarming thing is how readily it spreads among a vulnerable population in healthcare settings: hospitals, skilled nursing

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Health experts continue to be troubled by the increase in the U.S. of Candida auris, a potentially deadly yeast infection. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, C. auris outbreaks are occurring in hospitals—which is not typical of yeast infections—and present “a serious global threat.”

As of late January, the CDC says, 590 cases had been reported in the U.S., across 12 states.

While that’s still a relatively small amount, the number has more than doubled from the 243 cases a year earlier. And between 2013 and 2016, there were only 13 known cases in the U.S. (This infection is thought to have been seen first in Japan in 2009 and has since spread to about 15 countries.)

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But vaginal yeast infections are very common in women. Though yeast infections can happen to anyone at any time, there are certain things that make getting them more likely. If you think you have a yeast infection , see your doctor before treating yourself.

Unlike most common yeast infections , C. auris doesn’t usually cause thrush, but results in bloodstream, wound or However, because patients usually contract the infection while hospitalised with other major illnesses, it’s difficult to be sure whether any deaths can be attributed solely to C. auris.

In some cases, usually in people who are already quite ill, C. auris can cause a widespread, or invasive, bloodstream infection. What’s more, invasive Candida bloodstream infections are becoming increasingly unresponsive to the most commonly used antifungal medications.

“We’re very alarmed because some strains of C. auris in other countries are resistant to all three major classes of antifungal drugs, which we’ve never seen before,” says Tom Chiller, M.D., chief of the CDC’s mycotic diseases branch. “We’re taking as proactive and aggressive an approach as possible to try to keep it in check in the United States.”

Around the world, some 60 percent of people who contracted C. auris have died. In the U.S., the CDC says, more than 30 percent of those with C. auris have died, but it’s unclear whether the deaths were the direct result of the fungal infection or an underlying health problem. Many of the people who have died had serious illnesses.

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‘I’m Pregnant, And My Doctor Just Prescribed Me A Drug Linked To Miscarriages’ Fluconazole is used to treat yeast infections.

Yeast infections can be very irritating and uncomfortable. A vaginal yeast infection , which is also sometimes called vulvovaginal candidiasis, happens when the healthy yeast that normally lives in your vagina grows out of control. Your doctor can also give you tips on relieving burning and itching.

Urinary tract infections and yeast infections commonly affect these areas. Each infection has unique symptoms and causes. Though UTIs and yeast infections are very different, it’s possible to have both at the same time. In fact, treating a UTI with antibiotics can sometimes lead to a yeast infection .

Compounding the problem is that C. auris can move from one person to another in hospitals, unlike other yeast infections. It can live on contaminated objects such as bed rails, chairs, catheters, and other equipment, and on the hands of health care providers.

“C. auris acts more like a type of bacteria called a nosocomial bacteria, which sticks to surfaces, so it can spread from patient to patient or from a health care provider to a patient,” says Cornelius Clancy, M.D., director of the mycology program at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. “That makes it hard to get rid of, even in hospitals that have excellent infection-control methods.”

While scientists work to understand more about how C. auris spreads and how best to prevent, diagnose, and treat it, here’s what you need to know if someone you love is at risk.

Know Who Is at Risk

If you’re generally healthy, there’s no current cause for concern.

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Penile yeast infections can often be treated with antifungal creams. If your symptoms do not Sometimes yeast infections return after they appear to be cured. If this occurs, your doctor will This is most common in men who wait to receive treatment until the infection has spread beyond the penis.

“ Yeast infection ” is the term typically used to describe vaginal candidiasis. At some point in their lives, three out of every four women will experience vaginal candidiasis. Vaginal yeast infections are irritating and uncomfortable. Symptoms of yeast infections in women can include itching and burning.

“We haven’t seen [C. auris] in the general community. It’s mainly a hospital-acquired infection,” says Peter Pappas, M.D., a professor of medicine in the division of infectious diseases at the University of Alabama and spokesman for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Thus far, this infection, like other invasive yeasts, has struck only “the sickest of the sick—people who are in and out of ICUs and also have central lines or immune-system-lowering conditions such as diabetes,” Chiller says.

Others at high risk include nursing home residents who have a central line (for the administration of medications) and people in the intensive care unit for an extended period of time, such as transplant recipients or cancer patients on intravenous antibiotics.

5 Protective Steps

If someone you love or care for is in a hospital, nursing home, or physical rehabilitation facility:

1. Wash your hands well whenever you enter his or her room. “One of the best ways to prevent the spread of dangerous germs like C. auris in health care settings is simply good hand hygiene,” Chiller says. The patient should also wash his or her hands regularly and well.

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Doctors typically treat the infection with antifungal medication, but up to 40 percent of people with invasive candidiasis die regardless of treatment. Vaginal yeast infections are also considered a complication of type 2 diabetes, as the metabolic disease makes you more susceptible to the infection .

Male yeast infections are in fact quite widespread and commonly misunderstood. There is an effective and rapid natural treatment option available for men who Like women, men who go to their doctor with a yeast infection will often be prescribed Diflucan (Fluconazole) in either a tablet, capsule or in a

2. Speak up if others aren’t washing their hands correctly. (Health care providers do this less than half the time, according to the CDC.) You may need to remind nurses, doctors, and other health care professionals to scrub up not only when they come into the room but also after handling a patient’s open wound, blood, or bodily fluids—or even touching his or her skin. Anyone who is wearing medical gloves and removes them should still wash his or her hands.

3. Ask whether any patients in the facility have C. auris. If so, Chiller says, find out whether additional precautionary measures have been put in place. Infected patients should be in a single room, those who come in contact with them should wear gowns and gloves, and health care providers should use disposable patient-care equipment for them (such as some blood pressure cuffs) when possible.

4. Make sure the hospital is cleaning properly. There’s no research yet available on the best disinfectant for C. auris, but the CDC recommends the use of an Environmental Protection Agency-registered hospital-grade disinfectant that’s effective against Clostridium difficile spores. These tend to be the strongest disinfectants currently available, Chiller says.

5. If the person is put on IV antibiotics in the ICU, ask whether it’s really necessary. “Antibiotic therapy, specifically IV antibiotics, is a significant risk factor [for any invasive candida], both the number of different antibiotics and the length of therapy,” says David Denning, M.D., a professor of infectious diseases in global health at the University Hospital of South Manchester in the U.K.

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Yeast Infections are one of the most common conditions seen in women. Yeast is a fungus that lives in the vagina in small numbers. Wait until a yeast infection passes before having sex. The infection is not spread through sexual contact, but men can develop symptoms, such as itching, after having

According to Chiller, use of any antibiotic, particularly a broad-spectrum antibiotic, increases the risk of C. auris because it kills healthy bacteria in the gut.

“With less competition from other organisms, it can multiply and become more likely to spread through the body,” he notes.

Diagnosis and Treatment Challenges

People who develop C. auris are often already very ill, so it may be difficult to distinguish its symptoms from those of other medical conditions.

The most common signs are fever and chills that don’t improve after antibiotic treatment for suspected bacterial infections, Chiller says. If you notice this, bring it to the attention of a health professional on site.

Blood tests are usually used to diagnose invasive Candida infections. When C. auris is suspected, hospital staff members should use a special laboratory test with a technology called matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF).

If the test is positive for the fungal infection, the CDC says treatment with a class of antifungals known as echocandins is usually effective. In some cases, people may need to be given high doses of several antifungal drugs.

Because C. auris develops resistance quickly, it’s important for anyone with this fungal infection to be monitored to see whether treatment is working and to have follow-up cultures. And because C. auris can live on the skin and other body sites after treatment, continue protective practices—such as ensuring that health care workers wear gowns and gloves—until a doctor determines that it’s appropriate to stop them.

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Invasive infection - where the yeast enters the bloodstream - with any Candida species can be fatal. Based on information from a limited number of C. auris can enter the bloodstream and spread through the body, causing severe invasive infection . It often does not respond to commonly used

So far, these yeast infections have been limited to long-term hospitalized patients, Chiller said, so the general public doesn’t need to worry about getting infected with C. auris. But the infections are a reminder of the importance of handwashing, particularly in hospitals, he said.

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