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Health & Fit Coronavirus, Sars, Ebola: A study shows why bat viruses are so deadly

08:25  09 april  2020
08:25  09 april  2020 Source:   businessinsider.de

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A new University of California, Berkeley, study finds that bats ’ fierce immune response to viruses could drive “It is not random that a lot of these viruses are coming from bats . Bats are not even that closely related to us, so When challenged by viruses mimicking Ebola and Marburg, the different

Coronavirus outbreak raises question: Why are bat viruses so deadly ? It’s no coincidence that some of the worst viral disease outbreaks in recent years — SARS , MERS, Ebola “It is not random that a lot of these viruses are coming from bats . Bats are not even that closely related to us, so we would

Der Schwarze Flughund hat wie andere Fledermausarten ein besonders wehrhaftes Immunsystem. © provided by Business Insider Germany Like other bat species, the black fruit bat has a particularly defensive immune system. EcoPic / Getty Images

The novel coronavirus Sars-CoV-2 most likely originates from bats - just like other deadly virus pathogens, for example Sars, Ebola and Marburg. It is no coincidence that bats, of all things, become the reservoir hosts for particularly dangerous viruses.

researchers from the University of California at Berkeley have now found that a peculiarity of the immune system of bats means that they can suppress the virus infection particularly successfully. However, this defense reaction also stimulates the multiplication of the pathogen. When it reaches other animals or humans, the virus is so well equipped that the immune system can hardly counter it.

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A DEADLY new virus sweeping the globe could have reportedly come from bats - like the SARS and Ebola viruses before it. The global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ) infected more than 8,000 people But this latest study , published in China Science Bulletin last night

The research results were published in the journal " eLife ".

Bat cells are more resistant than monkey cells

In order to understand why bats often cause pathogens as hosts, the international research team - which also included the well-known Charité virologist Christian Drosten - examined the immune response of two cell cultures. To this end, the scientists infected cell cultures of the black fruit bat (Pteropus alecto) and the Nile fruit bat (Roulettes agyptiacus) with various viruses similar to Marburg and Ebola. A cell of a vervet monkey was also infected as a control.

The researchers investigated how different bat cells and monkey cells reacted to the same pathogen. The result: While the monkey cells died completely within a few days, the progression of the infection slowed down in the cell cultures of the bats. Some cells were able to defend themselves against the virus so successfully that they showed no signs of infection even after several days.

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Bats rarely get sick from those viruses . Why these pathogens tend to be so dangerous when they infect Now a study using cells grown in a lab hints that to counter a bat ’s immune defenses, these Other bat species are reservoirs of SARS -like coronaviruses , possibly including one that sparked an

Severe acute respiratory syndrome ( SARS ) is caused by coronavirus , computer image of the infectionCredit: Getty Images - Getty. In 2014, scientists revealed that they had solved the mystery of how the Spanish flu started and why it became so deadly . A study by the Proceedings of the

pathogen develops through the strong immune defense to the turbo virus

The special protection strategy of the bat cells is based on the messenger substance interferon-alpha. This is released upon first contact with the pathogen and activates the cellular defense. The messenger substance also suppresses the inflammatory reaction.

"Bats can harbor viruses that are highly virulent for non-flying mammals for a long time without showing any obvious symptoms of the disease," study author Cara Brook is quoted in press release .

  Coronavirus, Sars, Ebola: Eine Studie zeigt, warum Fledermaus-Viren so tödlich sind © Provided by Business Insider Germany

Humans and most other mammals lack this strong interferon-alpha release and the anti-inflammatory immune response. The strong defense reaction of the bat cells acts as a drive on the virus.

"If you have a strong immune response and some cells are protected from infection, the virus can upregulate its growth without its host dying," explains Brook.

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Her studies had shown that the southern, subtropical areas of Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan Samples from three horseshoe bat species contained antibodies against the SARS virus . Many scientists say the world should move beyond merely responding to deadly pathogens when they arise.

The virus has also spread to at least 20 other countries. While the situation is dire, it is important to put it in context. Here, RT.com examines some of the deadliest pandemics in human history. Research suggests the virus is a mixed species strain made up of avian flu and human flu viruses .

The pathogen becomes more capable of reproduction and at the same time retains its reservoir host - so the bats' immune system helps to stimulate the pathogen's virulence. This turbo virus is even more dangerous for other mammals like humans.

  Coronavirus, Sars, Ebola: Eine Studie zeigt, warum Fledermaus-Viren so tödlich sind © Provided by Business Insider Germany Fledermaus © EcoPic / Getty Images Bat

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Professor Astrid Vabret, head of virology at the CHU de Caen, sheds light on the new coronavirus which is advancing in the world and which has entered in France. © Provided by Franceinfo Is this virus, as the Chinese health authorities say, "more contagious but less powerful" than SARS? Pr Astrid Vabret, CHU Caen: "This is indeed what the latest published studies seem to show.

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