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Health & Fit Moderna's groundbreaking coronavirus vaccine was designed in just 2 days

20:55  26 november  2020
20:55  26 november  2020 Source:   businessinsider.com

Second coronavirus vaccine is 94.5% effective in clinical trial

  Second coronavirus vaccine is 94.5% effective in clinical trial US-based Moderna has got a deal to supply 100million doses to the US and potentially 160million to the European Union but the jab is not one of the six pre-ordered by British officials.Early results from the company's final stage of clinical trials bring another landmark success in the global race to end the pandemic after Pfizer's vaccine, which works the same way, was found to be 90 per cent effective. But there won't be any Moderna doses available in Europe until spring 2021, while the US will get it this year.

The drugmaker Moderna announced on Monday that its coronavirus vaccine was 94.5 percent effective, joining Pfizer as a front-runner in the global race to contain a raging pandemic that Covid-19 is killing more than 1,100 Americans a day , and the last million cases occurred in just six days .

The Moderna vaccine is 94.5% effective against coronavirus , according to early data released Monday by the company, making it the second vaccine in the United States to have a stunningly high JUST WATCHED. Moderna ' s medical officer on how it felt to learn vaccine is 94.5% effective.

Moderna; Samantha Lee/Business Insider © Moderna; Samantha Lee/Business Insider Moderna; Samantha Lee/Business Insider
  • Moderna's coronavirus vaccine candidate is 94.5% effective at protecting people against COVID-19, according to the company.
  • The candidate took under a year to develop and test, which is years faster than previous vaccines.
  • The company designed its vaccine candidate in just two days. In contrast, traditional vaccines can take years to design.
  • Visit Business Insider's homepage for more stories.

Moderna's coronavirus vaccine candidate was found to be 94.5% effective in preventing COVID-19 in clinical trials, the company announced last week.

Moderna released more Covid-19 vaccine results. They’re very encouraging.

  Moderna released more Covid-19 vaccine results. They’re very encouraging. The company is now seeking Food and Drug Administration approval.Of the 196 Covid-19 cases in the trial, 185 were in the placebo group and only 11 in the vaccine group, Moderna reported.

US biotech firm Moderna has shipped an experimental coronavirus vaccine to US government researchers just six weeks after it started working on the immunization.

Moderna ' s coronavirus vaccine announcement set off a frenzy on Wall Street. Fourteen days after the participants get their second dose, the researchers will be looking at whether they develop Covid-19. Moderna ' s vaccine candidate is one of 23 in clinical trials around the world, according to the

The vaccine's development process was unprecedentedly fast — only the team of Pfizer and BioNTech beat the biotech newcomer in announcing results from a late-stage clinical trial.

The experimental vaccine was also far more effective than expected: The Food and Drug Administration had said it would likely approve a vaccine that showed at least 50% efficacy, and Dr. Anthony Fauci had said he hoped for 70%. (AstraZeneca found its coronavirus vaccine candidate to be 70% effective on average, while Pfizer-BioNTech reported their shot is 95% effective.)

But perhaps more remarkable is that Moderna designed its vaccine in just two days in January, before some people had even heard of the coronavirus.

That wouldn't have been possible without the technology Moderna has bet on since its founding: messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines.

Coronavirus vaccines compared: What to know about shots from Moderna and Pfizer, from safety to side effects

  Coronavirus vaccines compared: What to know about shots from Moderna and Pfizer, from safety to side effects Moderna and Pfizer have COVID-19 vaccines that are safe and effective, based on testing in tens of thousands of people. But there are differences.The Food and Drug Administration granted emergency use authorization for Pfizer's two-shot vaccine last week, and agency regulators are expected to greenlight Moderna's very similar two-dose mRNA shot course later this week. An FDA expert panel will meet Thursday to discuss and vote on Moderna's shot, teeing up an agency decision that could come as soon as Friday.

The coronavirus vaccines from Moderna Inc., in Cambridge, Mass., and its German rival BioNTech SE propose to immunize people in a radically different way: by harnessing human cells to become miniature vaccine factories in their own right. Instead of virus proteins, the vaccines contain genetic

The first Covid-19 vaccine to be tested in humans appears safe and able to generate coronavirus -killing antibodies in test subjects, Moderna said Monday. The findings are just a sample from its phase one clinical trial in which eight volunteers who were given two doses of the vaccine in

Messenger RNA is genetic material that tells cells how to make proteins. So Moderna's coronavirus vaccine candidate works by injecting a small piece of mRNA from the coronavirus that codes for the virus' spike protein. This protein helps the coronavirus attach to and invade cells, and it's what antibodies target and neutralize. Moderna's mRNA vaccine spurs the body to produce the spike protein internally. That, in turn, triggers an immune response.

Pfizer's candidate, which the company says is 95% effective, is also mRNA-based.

diagram: An infographic showing how mRNA vaccines are developed. Shayanne Gal/Insider © Shayanne Gal/Insider An infographic showing how mRNA vaccines are developed. Shayanne Gal/Insider

Utilizing mRNA vaccine technology meant Pfizer and Moderna only needed the coronavirus' genetic sequence to make a vaccine — no live virus had to be cultured and grown in labs. That's why they were able to progress in record time. In contrast, for most traditional vaccine platforms, the process can take years.

How Moderna's coronavirus vaccine differs from Pfizer's

  How Moderna's coronavirus vaccine differs from Pfizer's Moderna's coronavirus vaccine is similar to the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine that was authorized and shipped out to Americans earlier this week. But there are a few key differences. Most importantly, Moderna's vaccine can be stored in normal freezers and does not require a super-cold transportation network, making it more accessible for smaller facilities and local communities. The US Food and Drug Administration's vaccine advisory committee meets Thursday to review whether to recommend emergency use authorization for Moderna's vaccine, with the FDA's decision expected by Friday.

A preprint of preclinical data for Moderna ’ s coronavirus vaccine suggests it uses delivery technology that is covered by a patent owned by Arbutus and upheld last week. There is widespread hope Moderna ’ s vaccine will play an important role in combating the pandemic.

Moderna ' s vaccine has to be kept at minus 20 degrees Celsius for shipping and longer-term storage of up to six months, but it can be kept at regular refrigeration temperatures for up to 10 days . The vaccine will be distributed in 10-dose vials with no preservatives, the company said. Moderna is also working

"What you could probably do is make this a whole new way of making drugs, vaccines, almost anything," Bob Langer, one of Moderna's founders, previously told Business Insider.

Read more: How the sprint for a coronavirus vaccine transformed Moderna into a $39 billion powerhouse that's poised to reshape biotech

chart, line chart: Yuqing Liu/Business Insider © Yuqing Liu/Business Insider Yuqing Liu/Business Insider

The FDA has never approved an mRNA-based vaccine or treatment before, so to many, Moderna's bet looked risky. But it appears to be set to pay off. Moderna will soon ask the FDA to authorize its coronavirus vaccine for emergency use, and Pfizer has already submitted its application.

If the FDA gives the green light to the shots, mRNA vaccines are poised to set a new industry standard.

How Moderna got ahead of the coronavirus

On January 6, Moderna CEO Stéphane Bancel emailed Barney Graham, a vaccine researcher at the National Institutes of Health. Bancel was troubled by a mysterious virus outbreak in Wuhan, China. He then talked with Graham about developing a vaccine for the virus.

Here’s where all the COVID-19 vaccine candidates currently stand

  Here’s where all the COVID-19 vaccine candidates currently stand More than a dozen frontrunners have reached late-stage clinical trials.Many of the other candidates, however, will fail somewhere along the vaccine development pipeline, which includes three rounds of clinical trials with increasingly large pools of volunteers to assess their safety, efficacy, and ability to prompt a response from the immune system. And for those that achieve authorization, there remain important questions that we’ll need more time and further research to answer, including how long the immunity they offer from COVID-19 lasts.

Moderna had been working with the NIH since 2017 on vaccines, and had not yet gotten a vaccine approved. Graham agreed.

On January 11, researchers from China published the genetic sequence of the novel coronavirus. Two days later, Moderna's team and NIH scientists had finalized the targeted genetic sequence it would use in its vaccine.

Bancel downplayed the accomplishment in an interview with the New York Times.

"This is not a complicated virus," he said.

By February 24, Moderna had shipped out its first vaccine batches to NIH scientists in Bethesda, Maryland. Researchers administered the first dose on March 16 in Seattle, Washington. That launched the first clinical trial of any coronavirus vaccine.

a person wearing a hat and sunglasses: Nurse Kath Olmstead gives volunteer Melissa Harting an injection as part of Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine trial, July 27, 2020. Hans Pennink/AP © AP Photo/Hans Pennink Nurse Kath Olmstead gives volunteer Melissa Harting an injection as part of Moderna's COVID-19 vaccine trial, July 27, 2020. Hans Pennink/AP

Moderna's speed may lead some to wonder whether the company sacrificed thoroughness. But that's not the case, according to Albert Rizzo, chief medical officer for the American Lung Association.

"We're not skipping steps — we actually have better technology," Rizzo told Business Insider. "Why did it take two weeks to cross the Atlantic back in the 1800s? Well, we had to go on a boat. Whereas now, you can get across the ocean in several hours."

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The pros and cons of mRNA vaccines

For decades, vaccines contained a dead or weakened version of the virus itself. Then early advances in genetics allowed vaccines to use proteins made by the virus instead. That method was first used in the 1980s to develop a vaccine for hepatitis B.

Companies like Novavax are relying on the protein-based model to create their coronavirus vaccine candidates. But Moderna's business has revolved around mRNA since it started in 2010.

a close up of a cake: An illustration of a coronavirus particle. The red, objects are the spike proteins. CDC © CDC An illustration of a coronavirus particle. The red, objects are the spike proteins. CDC

RNA vaccines offer a big advantage: speed. Since they're produced in test tubes rather than cultivated using cells, they're quicker to produce.

But the vaccines have drawbacks. For one, they require that people get two injections. Pfizer is delivering its two shots three weeks apart, while Moderna's trial participants received two shots four weeks apart.

The vaccines are also difficult to deliver and store. Pfizer's vaccine needs to be shipped at -94 degrees Fahrenheit, which requires dry ice and special freezers. Moderna's requires a temperature of -4 degrees Fahrenheit, which is a bit colder than the average freezer.

Still, Moderna's market value has risen by over 400% since January, to more than $40 billion.

Read the original article on Business Insider

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