Health & Fit Quick guide: COVID-19 vaccines in use and how they work
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Nearly 1 in 5 people diagnosed with coronavirus (COVID-19) develop a mental health issue such as depression or anxiety, a new study has found. © Provided by Eat This, Not That! Sad woman on a sofa. In the report published last week in the journal Lancet Psychiatry, researchers looked at the medical records of more than 69 million people in the US, including 62,000 people diagnosed with COVID-19. They found that 18% of patients developed a psychiatric issue within three months of that diagnosis. About 6% of COVID patients reported a mental health issue for the first time, compared to 3.
Editor's note: This article was last updated at 9:00am on Feb. 2. The original article was posted on Jan. 11.
Dozens of coronavirus vaccines entered clinical trials during 2020, and now, a handful have been authorized forin various countries — meaning the shots can be administered to the public while their developers continue to collect data on their safety and efficacy. Should they meet all the necessary criteria, these vaccines could be fully approved in the future, and in some places, they already have been.
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"The cavalry is on its way. If we can hang on and implement the public health measures, help is really on the way,” dr. Fauci said."What's the most important thing for people to do between now and when the cavalry arrives?" he was asked. The calvary referenced is the coronavirus vaccine, two of which—from Pfizer and Moderna—have been shown to be 95% effective in trials.
Here's a quick guide to the COVID-19 vaccines now in use around the world.
The vaccine developed by Pfizer and German biotechnology company BioNTech isat preventing COVID-19, a large study found. The vaccine is administered in two doses, given three weeks apart, and it must be stored at minus 94 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 70 degrees Celsius). On Dec. 11, 2020, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine became the first COVID-19 vaccine to be by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Several other countries have also authorized the vaccine for emergency use, including the U.K., Argentina, Chile and Singapore, and the European Union followed suit on Dec. 21,. Bahrain, Canada, Saudi Arabia and Switzerland have fully approved the vaccine. On Jan. 25, Australia gave the vaccine "provisional approval" for use in people aged 16 and over, .
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The loss of smell or taste is both common and relatively unique to the coronavirus—a fairly sure sign that you've caught COVID-19.However, one symptom is both common and relatively unique to the coronavirus—a fairly sure sign that you've caught COVID: The loss of smell or taste. It's usually the one sure sign someone has COVID. Read on to find out how to spot it, and to ensure your health and the health of others, don't miss these Sure Signs You've Already Had Coronavirus.
The shot uses a molecule called mRNA as its base. A molecular cousin of DNA, mRNA contains instructions to build specific proteins; in this case, the mRNA in the vaccine codes for the coronavirus spike protein, a structure that sticks off the virus's surface and is used to infect human cells. Once inside the body, the vaccine instructs human cells to build this protein, and the immune system learns to recognize and attack it.
The vaccine developed by U.S. biotech company Moderna and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) also uses mRNA as its base and isat preventing COVID-19. Like the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, it's delivered in two doses, but the doses are given four weeks apart, rather than three. Another difference is that the Moderna vaccine can be stored at at minus 4 F (minus 20 C), rather than requiring deep-freezing like the Pfizer shots.
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Those in long-term care facilities and health care personnel should get the vaccine first, says the CDC. Read on to see what that means for you, and to ensure your health and the health of others, don't miss these Sure Signs You've Already Had Coronavirus. © Provided by Eat This, Not That! Female doctor holding COVID-19 vaccine vial and taking liquid solution out with syringe; prevention and immunization from corona virus infection.
The FDAfor emergency use on Dec. 18, and Israel and the European Medicines Agency, an agency of the European Union, both authorized the shots for emergency use in January, according to the Times. Canada fully approved the vaccine on Dec. 23.
The vaccineand pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca is estimated to be about 70% effective at preventing COVID-19 — that said, in clinical trials, adjusting the dose seemed to boost this efficacy.
In people given two full-size doses, spaced 28 days apart, the vaccine was about 62% effective; in those given a half-dose followed by a full dose, the vaccine was 90% effective,. However, clinical trial participants who got half-doses did so by mistake, and some scientists have questioned whether those early results are representative.
and Argentina authorized the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine for emergency use in late December, and India and Mexico authorized the vaccine for emergency use in January, according to the Times. The EU's European Medicines Agency authorized the vaccine for use in adults on Jan. 29, .
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The shots contain a weakened version of adenovirus, a common cold virus that naturally infects chimpanzees. Scientists modified the virus so it cannot replicate in human cells and then added genes that code for the coronavirus spike protein. Inside the body, the vaccine enters cells and delivers these spike protein genes, which the cells use to build the spike protein itself. The presence of spike proteins triggers an immune response.
Sinopharm (Beijing Institute of Biological Products)
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Sinopharm, the state-owned China National Pharmaceutical Group, and the Beijing Institute of Biological Products developed a vaccine from an inactivated coronavirus, meaning a modified version of SARS-CoV-2 that cannot replicate. In late December,that the vaccine, called BBIBP-CorV, is more than 79% effective, according to preliminary data from late-stage clinical trials — that said, the company has not published said data.
In the summer of 2020, China gave Sinopharm authorization to vaccinate construction workers, diplomats and students with one of its two COVID-19 vaccine candidates, including BBIBP-CorV,. Nearly 1 million people had received the vaccines by November, according to the company's chairman.
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About 80 percent of people with COVID-19 have disturbances in taste or smell. It's so common, it's a more reliable indicator than fever or cough."Of particular interest is the rather frequent occurrence of loss of smell and taste, which precedes the onset of respiratory symptoms," said Dr. Anthony Fauci, the nation's leading infectious-disease expert, earlier this month.
The United Arab Emirates authorized BBIBP-CorV for emergency use in September and then fullyin December. Bahrain and China also fully approved the vaccine in December, and Egypt authorized it for emergency use in January 2021, . The vaccine is given in two doses spaced three weeks apart.
Sinopharm (Wuhan Institute of Biological Products)
Sinopharm's second vaccine candidate, developed by the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products, also uses an inactivated coronavirus as its base. The vaccine has been authorized for emergency use in China and the U.A.E., but little is known about its efficacy.
, in collaboration with the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, developed a COVID-19 vaccine using a weakened adenovirus, but one that naturally infects humans, not chimpanzees. Late-stage clinical trials with the vaccine are still ongoing, and its efficacy is not yet known. The shot is given in a single dose.
In June 2020, the CanSino vaccine was given approval to be used by China's military,.
The Chinese company Sinovac Biotech developed a vaccine from an inactivated version of SARS-CoV-2. The vaccine, called CoronaVac, is given in two doses 14 days apart,. China authorized the vaccine for emergency use in July.
Estimates vary as to how well the vaccine protects against COVID-19, and an official estimate has not yet been issued. One clinical trial in Brazil suggested that the vaccine was about 78% effective in one small subgroup of patients, but across all people, the efficacy may be closer to 63%,, a Brazilian news outlet.
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With more than a 9/11's worth of American deaths daily attributed to COVID-19, Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, joined California State University Chancellor Timothy White, to discuss the coronavirus and what we need to do to get it under control. "We are going through—and I don't think you need me to tell you this—the most extraordinary experience of historic outbreak, the impact and the likes of which we have not seen on this planet in 102 years since the pandemic of 1918," said Fauci, "and we are still struggling.
On Jan. 12, researchers from the Butantan Institute, the biologic research center where the trails were conducted, announced that the efficacy rate is 50.4%, overall, based on the latest data,.
The Indian company Bharat Biotech, along with the Indian Council of Medical Research and the National Institute of Virology developed a vaccine from an inactivated coronavirus, called Covaxin,. The vaccine is given in two doses, spaced four weeks apart, and has been authorized for emergency use in India. It's efficacy has not been publicly reported.
Gamaleya Research Institute
The Russia Ministry of Health's Gamaleya Research Institute developed a coronavirus vaccine candidate called Sputnik V, in reference to the world's first artificial satellite, launched during the, . The vaccine contains two common cold viruses, or adenoviruses, that have been modified so they don't replicate in humans; the modified viruses also contain genes that code for the coronavirus's spike protein.
In November, Russia announced that the vaccine is more than 91.4% effective in preventing COVID-19, according to early data from clinical trials. On Feb. 2, scientists reported that the vaccine has 91.6% efficacy, based on preliminary data from a late-stage trial published in.
Russia began offering the vaccine to its citizens as part of a mass vaccination campaign in November 2020, according to The New York Times. Russia had already approved the vaccine for limited use in August, when very little data from human trials was available,.
Since November, Belarus, Argentina and Serbia have also authorized the vaccine for emergency use, the Times reported. On Jan. 15, Paraguay also authorized the vaccine for emergency use,.
In October 2020, Russia granted "regulatory approval" to a second vaccine, one developed by the Vector Institute, a Russian biological research center,. The vaccine contains coronavirus peptides, which are small portions of proteins found in the virus. Like Sputnik V, the vaccine earned approval in Russia before large-scale clinical trials had been conducted. As of now, its efficacy is still unknown.
Originally published on Live Science.
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"I will guarantee you this will end," he said. But we all have to do this first.As COVID-19 vaccines have begun to roll out to healthcare workers, Fauci and other public health officials have urged Americans to stay vigilant about protective measures like mask wearing, social distancing and handwashing to stem spread of the virus.