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Crime EXPLAINER: Was officer's knee on Floyd's neck authorized?

01:30  06 april  2021
01:30  06 april  2021 Source:   msn.com

Derek Chauvin used force against arrestees 6 other times. The jury in the George Floyd case won't hear about them.

  Derek Chauvin used force against arrestees 6 other times. The jury in the George Floyd case won't hear about them. Prosecutors tried to introduce six incidents in which they say Derek Chauvin used unreasonable force on people. The judge didn't allow them.The jury considering murder and manslaughter charges against Chauvin won't hear about any of them. And their verdict may be influenced as much by what they don't know as what they do.

Training manuals also instructed officers to be attentive to whether a suspect was having difficulty breathing. Chauvin and the other officers never turned Floyd on his side, even as he said he couldn’t breathe 27 times before his body went limp. What do attorneys say? The filing included a photo in department training materials of a trainer with a knee on the neck of an instructor playing a suspect. Prosecutors have already put supervisory officers on the stand to testify that, even if Chauvin pinning Floyd with his knee fell within policy, doing so for 9 minutes and 29 seconds did not.

He sometimes made other officers uncomfortable. The Minneapolis Police Department’ s Third Precinct station remained blocked off and empty on Friday. It was set on fire by protesters after George Floyd was killed in police custody.Credit Caroline Yang for The New York Times. Derek Chauvin, a former police officer , is accused of killing Mr. Floyd .Credit Hennepin County Sheriff' s Office/via Reuters. The roadside encounter with the four teenagers led to a complaint against Mr. Chauvin, and it reflected what both co-workers and citizens told The New York Times about encountering the officer over his 19

CHICAGO (AP) — A critical factor for jurors to consider at a former Minneapolis police officer's trial in George Floyd's death is whether he violated the department's policy on neck restraints when he knelt on Floyd's neck.

In this image from video, witness Donald Williams answers questions as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides Monday, March 29, 2021, in the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin, in the May 25, 2020, death of George Floyd at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis, Minn. Williams was testifying about what he saw of Floyd’s arrest. (Court TV via AP, Pool) © Provided by Associated Press In this image from video, witness Donald Williams answers questions as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides Monday, March 29, 2021, in the trial of former Minneapolis police officer Derek Chauvin, in the May 25, 2020, death of George Floyd at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis, Minn. Williams was testifying about what he saw of Floyd’s arrest. (Court TV via AP, Pool)

The Minneapolis Police Department banned all forms of neck restraints and chokeholds weeks after Floyd's death, but at the time of his May 25 arrest by Derek Chauvin and other officers, certain neck restraints were permitted — provided certain guidelines and conditions were followed.

Duty sergeant: Officers could have ended Floyd restraint

  Duty sergeant: Officers could have ended Floyd restraint MINNEAPOLIS (AP) — A Minneapolis police supervisory sergeant who was on duty the night George Floyd died testified that he believes the officers who restrained Floyd could have ended it after he stopped resisting. David Pleoger testified Thursday at the trial of since-fired officer Derek Chauvin, who is charged with murder and manslaughter in Floyd's death. He noted that officers are trained to roll people on their side to help with their breathing after they have been restrained in the prone position.

Days after Mr Floyd ' s May 2020 arrest and death in police custody, Chief Medaria Arradondo fired Mr Chauvin and the three other officers involved. It is rare for police chiefs to testify against their former officers and his testimony will be closely watched. Mr Chauvin, 45, has denied multiple charges of murder and manslaughter. Footage of Mr Chauvin, who is white, kneeling on African-American Mr Floyd ' s neck for more than nine minutes last year sparked global protests against racism.

Kneeling on George Floyd ' s neck while he was handcuffed and lying on his stomach was "totally unnecessary," the head of the Minneapolis Police Department' s homicide division testified on Friday. "If your knee is on a person' s neck , that can kill him,'' said Lt Richard Zimmerman, adding that when a Zimmerman, who said he is the most senior person on the police force, also testified at Derek Chauvin' s murder trial that once Floyd was handcuffed, he saw "no reason for why the officers felt they were in danger - if that' s what they felt - and that' s what they would have to feel to be able to use that kind of

Here is a look at the policy, which was a focus of testimony Monday, and how it could factor into a verdict for Chauvin, who is charged with murder and manslaughter:

WHAT NECK RESTRAINTS DID MINNEAPOLIS POLICE AUTHORIZE?

The department policy, in place for at least eight years at the time, divided permissible neck restraints into two categories, according to court filings and testimony Monday by the city police chief, Medaria Arradondo. Neck restraints were defined in the policy as a “non-deadly force option.”

One, called a “conscious neck restraint,” was for light pressure applied to the neck to help control a person without rendering unconsciousness. It was permitted for a person actively resisting.

In this image taken from video, defense attorney Eric Nelson, questions witness Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides Monday, April 5, 2021, in the trial of former Minneapolis police Officer Derek Chauvin at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis. Chauvin is charged in the May 25, 2020 death of George Floyd. (Court TV via AP, Pool) © Provided by Associated Press In this image taken from video, defense attorney Eric Nelson, questions witness Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides Monday, April 5, 2021, in the trial of former Minneapolis police Officer Derek Chauvin at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis. Chauvin is charged in the May 25, 2020 death of George Floyd. (Court TV via AP, Pool)

The other was an “unconscious neck restraint,” in which officers could use their arms or legs to knock out a person by pressing carotid arteries on either side of the neck, blocking blood flow to the brain. The policy called for it to be used only for a person “exhibiting active aggression” or actively resisting when lesser attempts to control the person had failed or were likely to fail.

Police chief: Fired cop broke policy in pinning Floyd

  Police chief: Fired cop broke policy in pinning Floyd MINNEAPOLIS (AP) — The Minneapolis police chief who called George Floyd's death “murder” soon after it happened testified that Officer Derek Chauvin had clearly violated department policy when he pinned Floyd's neck beneath his knee for more than 9 minutes. Continuing to kneel on Floyd's neck once he was handcuffed behind his back and lying on his stomach was “in no way, shape or form” part of department policy or training, "and it is certainlyContinuing to kneel on Floyd's neck once he was handcuffed behind his back and lying on his stomach was “in no way, shape or form” part of department policy or training, "and it is certainly not part of our ethics or our values,” Police Chief Medaria Arradondo said Monday on D

Officers saved restraining Floyd — with Chauvin kneeling on his neck , any other kneeling on Floyd ’ s assist and a Third conserving his toes — except the ambulance arrived, even after he grew to change into unresponsive. Yet any other checked Floyd ’ s wrist for a pulse and said he couldn’t regain one. The officers also rebuffed provides of attend from an off-accountability Minneapolis firefighter who desired to administer aid or divulge officers the finest solution to do it. Under unsuitable examination, Chauvin licensed legit Eric Nelson peppered Zimmerman with questions about the usage of force

When Floyd stopped moving, Officer J. Alexander Kueng "checked Mr. Floyd ’ s right wrist for a pulse and said, 'I couldn’t find one.' None of the officers moved from their positions," the complaint said. Chauvin' s knee was on Floyd ' s neck for 2 minutes and 43 seconds even after the man had passed out, according to the charging document. The Police Officers Federation of Minneapolis in a previous statement has asked the public not to rush to judgment before all video can be reviewed. It' s unclear what additional video would be viewed.

Police guidelines also instructed officers, at the first possible opportunity, to turn people on their sides once they were handcuffed and under control to avoid “positional asphyxia,” in which breathing becomes labored in a prone position and can lead to death. The city had pledged to emphasize to officers the dangers of positional asphyxia as part of a $3 million settlement in the 2010 death of David Smith. Minneapolis officers subdued Smith with a Taser and pinned him face down on the floor for several minutes with their knees on his back.

Training manuals also instructed officers to be attentive to whether a suspect was having difficulty breathing. Chauvin and the other officers never turned Floyd on his side, even as he said he couldn’t breathe 27 times before his body went limp.

In this image from video, prosecutor Steve Schleicher questions witness Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides Monday, April 5, 2021, in the trial of former Minneapolis police Officer Derek Chauvin at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis. Chauvin is charged in the May 25, 2020 death of George Floyd. (Court TV via AP, Pool) © Provided by Associated Press In this image from video, prosecutor Steve Schleicher questions witness Minneapolis Police Chief Medaria Arradondo as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides Monday, April 5, 2021, in the trial of former Minneapolis police Officer Derek Chauvin at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis. Chauvin is charged in the May 25, 2020 death of George Floyd. (Court TV via AP, Pool)

WHAT DO ATTORNEYS SAY?

Key takeaways from Day 8 of the Derek Chauvin trial

  Key takeaways from Day 8 of the Derek Chauvin trial Key takeaways from Day 8 of the Derek Chauvin trial in George Floyd's death Los Angeles Police Department Sgt. Jody Stiger -- a veteran use-of-force trainer, who is testifying as a paid expert witness for the prosecution -- said his review of video evidence in Floyd's arrested indicated that Chauvin was also using a "pain compliance technique" on Floyd's handcuffed left hand.

On the facts, the knee on Mr. Floyd ' s neck was a knee on a man' s neck . That' s all that can be inferred from the chilling video recording in which Floyd expired slowly as he pleaded for air. Floyd begged to breathe. But the knee on his neck – "subdual restraint and neck compression," in medical terms – was sustained for fully eight minutes and 46 seconds, causing "cardiopulmonary arrest." There are laws against what transpired between former Officer Derek Chauvin and Mr. Floyd . And the law' s ambit is not to decide whether the offending officer is a correct-thinking individual, but whether Mr. Chauvin

Floyd died in police custody on Monday after the white officer handcuffed him before kneeling on his neck , despite Floyd ’ s pleas that he could not breathe. Four officers , including Chauvin, were fired the next day. Cellphone video footage of Floyd suffocating under the officer ’ s knee has gone viral, prompting three nights of protests in Minneapolis and reigniting longstanding anger over systemic racism in America, especially in the criminal justice system. On Friday night, protesters once again filled the streets in cities across New York, Arizona, California, Texas and Georgia, as well as in

Chauvin attorney Eric Nelson, in a pretrial filing, said Chauvin followed policy and "did exactly as he was trained to do.” The filing included a photo in department training materials of a trainer with a knee on the neck of an instructor playing a suspect.

Prosecutors have already put supervisory officers on the stand to testify that, even if Chauvin pinning Floyd with his knee fell within policy, doing so for 9 minutes and 29 seconds did not. In their pretrial filing, they said Chauvin and two other officers held their positions for four minutes after Floyd lost consciousness — and two minutes beyond when he no longer had a pulse.

In this image from video, witness Dr. Bradford Wankhede Langenfeld, the doctor who pronounced George Floyd dead, testifies as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides Monday, April 5, 2021, in the trial of former Minneapolis police Officer Derek Chauvin at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis.  Chauvin is charged in the May 25, 2020 death of George Floyd. (Court TV via AP, Pool) © Provided by Associated Press In this image from video, witness Dr. Bradford Wankhede Langenfeld, the doctor who pronounced George Floyd dead, testifies as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill presides Monday, April 5, 2021, in the trial of former Minneapolis police Officer Derek Chauvin at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis. Chauvin is charged in the May 25, 2020 death of George Floyd. (Court TV via AP, Pool)

Witnesses also testified to the danger of Floyd's position and to frequent department training on the importance of moving someone as quickly as possible into a recovery position. The photo included in Nelson's filing included text that read: “Place the subject in the recovery position to alleviate positional asphyxia.”

Day 9 of Chauvin trial: Expert witness Tobin says Chauvin's knee cut off Floyd's air

  Day 9 of Chauvin trial: Expert witness Tobin says Chauvin's knee cut off Floyd's air Testimony from pulmonologist Martin Tobin dominated the ninth day of former Minneapolis Police officer Derek Chauvin's trial, as the doctor provided jurors comment about George Floyd's ability to breathe while under restraint. During his time at the stand, Tobin refuted the impact fentanyl had on Floyd's breathing just before he lost consciousness, and pushed back against claims that preexisting health conditions caused his death. The defenseDuring his time at the stand, Tobin refuted the impact fentanyl had on Floyd's breathing just before he lost consciousness, and pushed back against claims that preexisting health conditions caused his death.

Prosecutors highlighted video from Officer Thomas Lane's body camera on which he can be heard suggesting to Chauvin after Floyd lost consciousness that he be turned on his side, showing that Lane seemed to grasp the danger. Chauvin responded: “Stay … put where you got him.”

WHICH TYPE OF RESTRAINT WAS CHAUVIN TRYING TO PERFORM?

That’s unclear. Donald Williams, a former mixed martial arts fighter who saw Chauvin restraining Floyd, testified last week that he believed Chauvin was attempting what he and other MMA fighters know as a blood choke — a permitted move in competitions in which carotid arteries are pressed for no more than 10 seconds to render an opponent unconscious.

In this image from video, defense attorney Eric Nelson, left, and defendant former Minneapolis police Officer Derek Chauvin, right, listen as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill discusses motions before the court Monday, April 5, 2021,  in the trial of Chauvin at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis. Chauvin is charged in the May 25, 2020, death of George Floyd.  (Court TV via AP, Pool) © Provided by Associated Press In this image from video, defense attorney Eric Nelson, left, and defendant former Minneapolis police Officer Derek Chauvin, right, listen as Hennepin County Judge Peter Cahill discusses motions before the court Monday, April 5, 2021, in the trial of Chauvin at the Hennepin County Courthouse in Minneapolis. Chauvin is charged in the May 25, 2020, death of George Floyd. (Court TV via AP, Pool)

“The officer on top was shimmying to actually get the final choke in,” Williams told jurors.

The police chief told testified Monday he believed Chauvin was attempting a conscious neck retraint but held it far longer than department policy allowed.

Expert: Lack of oxygen killed George Floyd, not drugs

  Expert: Lack of oxygen killed George Floyd, not drugs MINNEAPOLIS (AP) — George Floyd died of a lack of oxygen from the way he was held down by police, a retired forensic pathologist testified Friday at former Officer Derek Chauvin's murder trial. The testimony of Lindsey Thomas, who retired in 2017 from the Hennepin County Medical Examiner's office in Minneapolis, bolstered the findings of other experts on Thursday who rejected the defense theory that Floyd’s drug use and underlying health problems killed him.

HOW MUCH PRESSURE WAS CHAUVIN APPLYING?

That’s also in dispute.

One witness testified she saw Chauvin lift his right leg at one point, shifting his full weight onto Floyd’s neck with his left leg. Another said Chauvin never eased up, either by putting a hand on the ground or leaning on a squad car next to him.

Nelson said a medical examiner found no bruising of Floyd’s neck or any injury to neck structures. “Clearly, Mr. Chauvin was cautious about the amount of pressure he used to restrain Mr. Floyd,” one defense filing said.

Nelson has also made clear he will argue that Floyd died because of drugs he had taken, not because of Chauvin's actions. An autopsy found fentanyl and methamphetamine in Floyd's system.

EXPERTS ON THE NECK RESTRAINT

Jack Ryan, a Rhode Island lawyer and former police officer trained in chokeholds who was an expert for plaintiffs in the Smith family lawsuit, questioned in a phone interview whether it ever made sense for Minneapolis and other police departments to allow blood chokes. When officers try to execute one on a flailing suspect, it can go wrong quickly, with officers inadvertently blocking a suspect’s airway.

A consensus has grown over the years, accelerated by Floyd’s case, that it’s not practical to provide officers the constant training they need to master and maintain the art of the blood choke.

“It’s a move that requires precision in training, which means these are very perishable skills,” Scott Allen DeFoe, a former Los Angeles police officer trained in martial arts, testifying for plaintiffs in a 2019 lawsuit in California against police who used choke holds.

Defense set to take turn in ex-cop's trial in Floyd death .
MINNEAPOLIS (AP) — The defense for a former Minneapolis police officer charged in George Floyd's death was set to start presenting its case Tuesday, following 11 days of a prosecution narrative that combined wrenching video with clinical analysis by medical and use-of-force experts to condemn Derek Chauvin's actions. Prosecutors called their final witnesses Monday, leaving only some administrative matters before they were expected to rest Tuesday. Once the defense takes over, Chauvin attorney Eric Nelson is expected to have his own experts testify that it was Floyd's drug use and bad heart, not Chauvin's actions, that killed him.

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This is interesting!