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Technology Oceans on ancient Mars may have got an assist from volcanoes

21:26  25 march  2018
21:26  25 march  2018 Source:   latimes.com

Mars on Earth: Simulation tests in remote desert of Oman

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The oceans that once covered Mars may have formed somewhere around 3.7 billion years ago, even earlier than previously thought, according to scientists at the University of California, Berkeley. The findings, published in the journal Nature, highlight a potential link between the birth of Martian oceans

The oceans that once covered Mars may have formed somewhere around 3.7 billion years ago, even earlier than previously thought, according to scientists at The heat released by the volcanoes could also have triggered massive releases of melted ice or groundwater reserves, which could explain the

Oceans on Mars formed more than 3.7 billion years ago, earlier than previously thought, and volcanoes might have had something to do with it. © NASA/GFSC/Los Angeles Times/TNS Oceans on Mars formed more than 3.7 billion years ago, earlier than previously thought, and volcanoes might have had something to do with it.

The oceans that once covered Mars may have formed somewhere around 3.7 billion years ago, even earlier than previously thought, according to scientists at the University of California, Berkeley.

The findings, published in the journal Nature, highlight a potential link between the birth of Martian oceans and the rise and fall of its volcanic activity.

Billions of years ago, the Red Planet didn't look so different from our own blue-green world, scientists say. It could have had a thick atmosphere, puffy clouds, even lakes and oceans. That's why researchers wonder whether life could have existed on our now-cold, dry neighbor.

Oceans on Mars Appear to Have Formed Much Earlier Than Previously Thought

  Oceans on Mars Appear to Have Formed Much Earlier Than Previously Thought Changes in the elevation of ancient shorelines on Mars may have been caused by the emergence of the Tharsis volcanic region, suggesting large bodies of water formed early on the Red Planet. If Mars had oceans in its ancient past, their shorelines likely changed as the Tharsis volcanic region rose up on the Red Planet, new research shows. By contrast, past work suggested that oceans must have formed only after Tharsis began affecting the orientation of the Red Planet's axis roughly 3.7 billion years ago.Mars is an enigma to researchers because there is extensive evidence of water long ago — gullies, rocks formed in water.

The rise of the largest volcanoes in the solar system may have led Mars to possess oceans hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously thought, a In addition, these findings suggested that the oceans on ancient Mars were shallower than previously thought. If the seas filled before Tharsis was

" Volcanoes may be important in creating the conditions for Mars to be wet," said Professor Michael Manga, a planetary scientist at the University of The new study, published in the journal Nature, suggests oceans on Mars actually formed several hundred million years earlier than scientists

One clue that oceans might once have covered much of the planet lies in the shoreline-like features found across the planet's northern lowlands. There's just one problem: Such features should indicate an even sea level at constant elevation, but these marks lie at a wide range of higher and lower elevations, some varying by more than half a mile in height.

Perhaps these marks don't represent shorelines at all, some researchers said. Others have suggested that a shift in the Red Planet's rotation pole could also have forced the shorelines to move.

But scientists have already nixed the latter hypothesis, pointing to the location of a massive Martian feature called Tharsis. Tharsis is a roughly 3,100-mile-wide volcanic plain that holds now-dormant behemoths such as the 25-kilometer-high Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the solar system. Tharsis probably formed too close to the equator to allow for a dramatic shift in the planet's rotation pole. Without that shift, the shorelines don't end up moving much.

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The rise of the largest volcanoes in the solar system may have led Mars to possess oceans hundreds of millions of years earlier than previously thought, a In addition, these findings suggested that the oceans on ancient Mars were shallower than previously thought. If the seas filled before Tharsis was

Almost all water on Mars today exists as ice, though it also exists in small quantities as vapor in the atmosphere. What was thought to be low-volume liquid brines in shallow Martian soil

Robert Citron, a UC Berkeley graduate student in planetary science, and his colleagues set out to find a solution to this dilemma, developing a model that looked at how Tharsis' growth changes the shape of Mars. Their model revealed that the oceans (and their mismatched shorelines) may have formed around the same time as Tharsis.

That's because as Tharsis grew it would have deformed the planet, causing a sister bulge to form on the opposite side of the planet and for a depression to develop in between. All this planet-squashing would have changed the shape of the surface enough to cause the oceans to move and the shorelines to shift.

The mismatched coastlines of the first ocean, Arabia, make sense if it existed during the first 20 percent of Tharsis' growth. A later ocean, Deuteronilus, would have got its irregular coastlines if it developed in the last 17 percent of Tharsis' growth. Arabia would have held about 9.8 million cubic miles of water, and Deuteronilus would have held around 19.9 million cubic miles' worth.

How Engineers Tested the Super-Sensitive Seismometer That Will Detect Quakes on Mars

  How Engineers Tested the Super-Sensitive Seismometer That Will Detect Quakes on Mars If all goes according to plan, NASA’s Mars InSight mission will launch this weekend from California. Onboard the Atlas V-401 rocket is the InSight lander, a nearly 800-pound machine loaded up with cameras, a robotic arm, a heat probe, and a seismometer that, for the first time, will allow us to examine the inner structure of the Red Planet. But before a robot goes to Mars, it needs to prove itself on the testing grounds of Earth. This is how Mars InSight’s extremely sensitive seismometer proved its mettle before being loaded onto a rocket destined for Mars.

Mars has winds and dunes that form distinct features on its surface similar to what we see here on Earth, and a new study suggests that Mars might have a lot more in common By studying Martian meteorites, scientists think they've found an explanation for ancient eruptions on the Red Planet.

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

On top of that, the greenhouse gases released by the volcanoes would have warmed the climate and made it easier for water to remain liquid on the surface.

The heat released by the volcanoes could also have triggered massive releases of melted ice or groundwater reserves, which could explain the valley networks cut into the surface, Citron said.

"It informs our history of Mars by making this connection between volcanism at Tharsis and the development of these possible oceans," Citron said. "That says something about possible feedback between the interior and surface and climate."

The researchers say this all might have happened around the same time that Tharsis formed some 3.7 billion years ago. This would make the oceans older than previously thought.

This is still just an idea, Citron pointed out. And there's still work to be done to better understand the volcano-ocean relationship.

"One of the big questions about Mars is whether early oceans can remain stable, because climate models have struggled to explain how liquid oceans would remain stable for long periods during Mars's early evolution," Citron said.

The next step, he added, might be to figure out exactly how much volcanism a planet like Mars would need to keep an ocean of water stable on the surface.

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