Technology: Scientists warn Earth's magnetic North Pole has begun moving 'erratically' at speeds so fast they are having to issue an emergency update to maps used by electronic navigation systems - PressFrom - US
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TechnologyScientists warn Earth's magnetic North Pole has begun moving 'erratically' at speeds so fast they are having to issue an emergency update to maps used by electronic navigation systems

20:05  11 january  2019
20:05  11 january  2019 Source:   dailymail.co.uk

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has begun moving ' erratically ' at speeds so fast they are having to issue an emergency update to maps used by electronic navigation systems . Magnetic North Pole is 'skittering' away from Canada, towards Siberia. Researchers say it is moving at an 'unusually high speed of about 50 km

The North Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the surface of Earth ' s Northern Hemisphere at which the planet' s magnetic field points vertically downwards

Scientists warn Earth's magnetic North Pole has begun moving 'erratically' at speeds so fast they are having to issue an emergency update to maps used by electronic navigation systems© Getty Global world telecommunication network with nodes connected around earth. Earth image from NASA (images-assets.nasa.gov/image/iss040e090540/iss040e090540~orig.jpg). Composition and network edited in Adobe Photoshop

Earth's magnetic fields are shifting - and scientists are unsure why.

Researchers say the magnetic North Pole is  'skittering' away from Canada, towards Siberia.

The problem has got so bad, researchers around the world are scrambling to update a global model of the fields.

Called the World Magnetic Model, it underlies all modern navigation, from the systems that steer ships at sea to Google Maps on smartphones.

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Magnetic poles used in compass navigation are another matter altogether. In regions near the magnetic poles , compasses are virtually useless. Complicating this issue is that these pole The North magnetic pole seems to be moving northward at an average rate of 10 kilometers per year.

Earth ' s magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth ' s interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind

Scientists warn Earth's magnetic North Pole has begun moving 'erratically' at speeds so fast they are having to issue an emergency update to maps used by electronic navigation systems© Provided by Associated Newspapers Limited Researchers say the magnetic North Pole is 'skittering' away from Canada, towards Siberia, far more quickly that they expected it to.

WHY ARE THE EARTH'S MAGNETIC FIELDS MOVING?

The problem lies partly with the moving pole and partly with other shifts deep within the planet.

Liquid churning in Earth's core generates most of the magnetic field, which varies over time as the deep flows change.

In 2016, for instance, part of the magnetic field temporarily accelerated deep under northern South America and the eastern Pacific Ocean. Satellites such as the European Space Agency's Swarm mission tracked the shift.

The most recent version of the model came out in 2015, and it was supposed to last until 2020.

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The magnetic pole is moving faster than at any time in human history, causing major problems for Some airports have had to change the names of their runways to better correspond to their current The thing that really makes the pole ' s current movement so unusual, however, is the speed that it is

The North Pole , also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole , is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth ' s axis of

However, researchers say the  magnetic field is changing so rapidly that they have to fix the model urgently.

It was due to be updated on the 15th January, but due to the US Government shutdown, that has already been delayed until the 30th.

'It's moving at about 50 km (30 miles) a year. It didn't move much between 1900 and 1980 but it's really accelerated in the past 40 years,' Ciaran Beggan, of the British Geological Survey in Edinburgh, told Reuters on Friday.

The magnetic field is in a permanent state of flux.

Magnetic north wanders, and every few hundred thousand years the polarity flips so that a compass would point south instead of north.

'The error is increasing all the time,' Arnaud Chulliat, a geomagnetist at the University of Colorado Boulder and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Centers for Environmental Information, told Nature.

Earth's fast-moving magnetic north pole is messing with navigation

Earth's fast-moving magnetic north pole is messing with navigation The Earth's magnetic north pole is constantly on the move, but it's now enough of a problem that it's having a significant effect on navigation technology. Scientists at the National Centers for Environmental Information have delivered an update to the World Magnetic Model a year early after "unplanned variations in the Arctic region" (read: quick movements) made the existing magnetic north inaccurate. That's a problem for virtually every device with a magnetic compass, including smartphones, military vehicles and airliners. Magnetic north is moving at a rate of 34 miles per year, up from 9 miles per year in 2000.

The north magnetic pole in recent years has started shifting quickly toward Siberia. "If you look at the north pole of the bar magnet you have the field lines going from the north pole to the south pole , but for the earth it' s exactly opposite," Maus explains.

Scientists understand that Earth ' s magnetic field has flipped its polarity many times over the millennia. In other words, if you were alive about 800,000 years ago, and facing what we call north with a magnetic compass in your hand, the needle would point to 'south.' This is because a magnetic

'In early 2018, as part of our regular assessment of the WMM, we found that the model exceeded its specification for declination only three years into the five-year WMM cycle,' he told the American Geophysical Union meeting.

'We investigated this error and tracked it down to the combined effect of a global geomagnetic acceleration pulse occurring in 2015-2016, and a fast-changing magnetic field in the North polar area.

'A remarkable manifestation of the field variation is the drift of the North magnetic pole towards Russia, which has been occurring at the unusually high speed of about 50 km per year since the beginning of the 21st century.

'On the contrary, the South magnetic pole drift is very slow (less than 10 km per year) and has not changed much over the past few decades, and hence provided a much smaller contribution to the overall model declination error.'

To fix the model, he and his colleagues fed it three years of recent data, which included a 2016 geomagnetic pulse, and he says the new model, when it is released,  should remain accurate until the next regularly scheduled update in 2020.

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Earth ' s rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis. Earth rotates eastward, in prograde motion. As viewed from the north pole star Polaris, Earth turns counter clockwise.

Scientists say earth ’ s magnetic field is weakening and could all but disappear in as little as 500 years as Earth ’ s magnetic field has always restored itself but, as it continues to shift and weaken, it will The European Space Agency is taking the issue seriously. In November, it plans to launch three

Satellites such as the European Space Agency's Swarm mission tracked the shift.

Phil Livermore, a geomagnetist at the University of Leeds, UK, said at the American Geophysical Union meeting 'the location of the north magnetic pole appears to be governed by two large-scale patches of magnetic field, one beneath Canada and one beneath Siberia,' Livermore says.

'The Siberian patch is winning the competition.'

WHAT IS THE WORLD MAGNETIC MODEL?

The charts, known as the World Magnetic Model (WMM), are used to convert between compass measurements of magnetic north and true north and can be found in the navigation systems of ships and airplanes as well as geological applications (such as drilling and mining).

The WMM is also part of map applications in smartphones, including the Google Maps App.

Researchers from the U.S.'s National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) maintain the WMM.

Scientists warn Earth's magnetic North Pole has begun moving 'erratically' at speeds so fast they are having to issue an emergency update to maps used by electronic navigation systems© Provided by Associated Newspapers Limited The charts, known as the World Magnetic Model (WMM), are used to convert between compass measurements of magnetic north and true north

'Although GPS is a great tool for navigation, it is limited in that it only provides your position,' geodetic scientist James Friederich from the U. S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency explained in 2014.

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Meanwhile, the magnetic north pole has been wandering east, towards Asia. Red shows where changes have sped up. So you can see, for example, that changes in the field have slowed Swarm data are now enabling us to map detailed changes in Earth ’ s magnetic field, not just at Earth ’ s

The Earth has an iron core, and movement within its outer part is likely responsible for sustaining a magnetic field, which constitutes much of what we measure at the Earth ' s surface. As a result, the Earth resembles something of a giant magnet with two poles : magnetic north and magnetic south.

'Your orientation, the direction you are facing, comes from the magnetic field.'

'Our war fighters use magnetics to orient their maps.

'Your smartphone camera and various apps can use the magnetic field to help determine the direction you are facing,' he continued.

'All of these examples need the WMM to provide your proper orientation.'

Scientists in recent years have predicted that Earth's magnetic field could be gearing up to 'flip' – a shift in which the magnetic south pole would become magnetic north, and vice versa.

Such an event could have catastrophic effects, wreaking havoc on the electric grid and leaving life at the surface exposed to higher amounts of solar radiation.

While it's previously been thought that these reversals take place at intervals of hundreds of thousands of years, one recent study suggests it could happen in just a matter of centuries.

Scientists warn Earth's magnetic North Pole has begun moving 'erratically' at speeds so fast they are having to issue an emergency update to maps used by electronic navigation systems© Provided by Associated Newspapers Limited Scientists in recent years have predicted that Earth’s magnetic field could be gearing up to ‘flip’ – a shift in which the magnetic south pole would become magnetic north, and vice versa. Earth's magnetic field is illustrated above

Scientists estimate Earth's North and South magnetic poles flip every 200,000-300,000 years.

But, it's been roughly 780,000 years since the last such event, causing many to suspect we're overdue.

When the magnetic poles flip, Earth's protective magnetic field weakens, leaving its inhabitants at higher risk from the effects of space weather.

'Earth's magnetic field, which has existed for at least 3.45 billion years, provides a shield from the direct impact of solar radiation,' said Professor Roberts from the ANU Research School of Earth Sciences.

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The Earth ' s field has alternated between periods of normal polarity, in which the predominant Beginning in 1966, Lamont–Doherty Geological Observatory scientists found that the magnetic They are found off the east coast of North America, the northwest coast of Africa, and the western

Scientists have long known that the magnetic pole moves . James Ross located the pole for the first time in 1831 after an exhausting arctic journey during which his ship got These sediments - magnetic particles called magnetite - record the Earth ' s magnetic field at the time they were deposited.

'Even with Earth's strong magnetic field today, we're still susceptible to solar storms that can damage our electricity-based society.'

In the new study, researchers at the Australian National University analyzed the paleomagnetic record from 107,000 to 91,000 years ago by analyzing a stalagmite from a cave in southwestern China.

The team conducted magnetic analysis and radiometric dating on the meter-long sample, revealing the behaviour of the ancient magnetic field.

And, they found the magnetic field experienced a rapid shift over the span of about two centuries, decreasing in strength by about 90 percent when a field reversal occurred.

Scientists warn Earth's magnetic North Pole has begun moving 'erratically' at speeds so fast they are having to issue an emergency update to maps used by electronic navigation systems© Provided by Associated Newspapers Limited In the new study, researchers at the Australian National University analyzed the paleomagnetic record from 107,000 to 91,000 years ago by analyzing a stalagmite from a cave in southwestern China

The damage to power grids and communications systems resulting from such a flip in today's society would cause trillions of dollars in damage, the researchers explain.

'Hopefully such an event is a long way in the future and we can develop future technologies to avoid huge damage, where possible, from such events,' Professor Roberts said.

The study suggests Earth's magnetic field is a lot more unpredictable than suspected, the researchers say.

'The record provides important insights into ancient magnetic field behaviour,' Professor Roberts said, 'which has turned out to vary much more rapidly than previously thought.'

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