Technology: Scientists hope DNA in water could be way to save rare fish - PressFrom - US
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TechnologyScientists hope DNA in water could be way to save rare fish

09:15  11 february  2019
09:15  11 february  2019 Source:   msn.com

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PORTLAND, Maine (AP) — Scientists in Maine are using DNA to try to preserve the remaining populations of a fish that lives in 14 lakes and The project involves collecting water samples from the lakes and ponds where the fish are known to live, and studying DNA that they and other organisms

Scientists in Maine are using DNA to try to preserve the remaining populations of a fish that lives in 14 lakes and ponds in the state and nowhere else in the It'll provide vital information scientists can use to keep charr populations stable, he said. It's also a much less invasive and time-consuming way than

Scientists hope DNA in water could be way to save rare fish© The Associated Press In this Oct. 26, 2018 photo, University of Maine graduate student Brad Erdman holds an Artic charr, left, and a brook trout, right, at Floods Pond near Otis, Maine. Scientists in Maine are in the middle of a project to use DNA to help preserve Arctic charr, which are at the southern end of their range in the state. (Mitch Paisker via AP)

PORTLAND, Maine — Scientists in Maine are using DNA to try to preserve the remaining populations of a fish that lives in 14 lakes and ponds in the state and nowhere else in the continental United States.

The scientists are turning their eye to the Arctic charr, which is a species of landlocked fish in Maine that has lived in the state for millennia and is prized by anglers. The charr face threats such as invasive predators and a warming climate. They are also notoriously elusive, making them difficult for researchers to track.

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Scientists can isolate this eDNA using a molecular technique known as quantitative polymerase But they began to wonder if the technique could be applied to frozen water —snow—as well. The research team was able to isolate lynx DNA in concentrations as low as five cells per liter of snow

Sampling DNA from seawater may be one way to check up on fish and other marine life, according These included rare deep-sea species such as the angler fish . The scientists then looked at two "We could say that the biomass catch is actually reflected in the amount of DNA in the water samples.

Michael Kinnison, a professor of evolutionary applications at University of Maine, and other scientists are working with the state to make sure the fish keep surviving. Kinnison is working on a project to collect "environmental DNA" from the water bodies where the fish live.

The project involves collecting water samples from the lakes and ponds where the fish are known to live, and studying DNA that they and other organisms shed, Kinnison said. It'll provide vital information scientists can use to keep charr populations stable, he said.

It's also a much less invasive and time-consuming way than older methods, such as using nets, Kinnison said.

"If your only tool to count a species is a gillnet, and there's not many, do you make the tough choice to risk killing the individuals to find them?" he said. "It's a way to get an idea of where organisms are located and do it in a way that presents really no harm."

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And a new technology could help. But scientists are now questioning whether that is a smart thing to do. Another possibility is that a piece of DNA that the researchers have injected into the cell (along with Cas9) can be pasted into the cut section. Esvelt’s group has proposed a way to limit that risk.

A simple analysis of fish DNA in water drawn from two New York rivers successfully tracked the presence or absence of numerous species during a "Environmental DNA " sampling will be an easy way to estimate the population and distribution of fish and other aquatic species in bodies of water

Arctic charr live at the top of the world, including in northern Canada and Alaska. They're known to seafood lovers because they're farmed for use as food. But to find one in the lower 48 states, an angler can only go to one of a group of remote, rural ponds and lakes in Maine, some of which are barely accessible to humans.

The project to collect their DNA in Maine launched in 2017, and is expected to continue through this summer, said Brad Erdman, a University of Maine ecology graduate student who is working on it. A local chapter of Trout Unlimited, an environmental nonprofit, is working on the project using grant money provided by the organization's Embrace-A-Stream fund.

Scientists hope DNA in water could be way to save rare fish© The Associated Press In this Oct. 31, 2017 photo, University of Maine graduate student Brad Erdman measures an Arctic charr at Floods Pond near Otis, Maine. Scientists in Maine are in the middle of a project to use environmental DNA to help preserve the cold-water fish. (Bob Mallard/Native Fish Coalition via AP)

One of the biggest threats to the charr is the presence of invasive rainbow smelt, a species of small fish that competes with charr for food and are suspected of eating charr's young. The charr were the subject of a yearslong project to eradicate the smelt from Big Reed Pond in northern Piscataquis County to save the charr's population there. Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife confirmed in June 2017 that the charr are spawning in the pond again.

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DNA dissolved in cave water is helping us track the whereabouts of vulnerable olm salamanders DNA from bits of skin that they have shed or their feces gets dissolved into their watery habitat and can be washed out of the cave. But she says it is a good way to identify cave systems with the animals

Like astronomers grasping at ways to identify life on a distant planet , marine scientists have no "This could revolutionize the way we keep track of animals," said study co-author Alexandria DNA of other animals, such as dolphins and marine smelts, turned up only in waters more than 600 feet deep.

Using environmental DNA can help make sure the smelt don't gain a foothold in other bodies of water where the charr live, said Francis Brautigam, the director of fisheries for the state wildlife department. The smelt have been illegally introduced in Bald Mountain Pond in northeast Somerset County, where charr populations have dropped, he said, and controlling the situation is a priority.

"Our agency has been pretty responsive to ensuring those populations remain on our landscape," Brautigam said.

Igor Sikorsky, a northern Maine camp owner and air taxi bush pilot, worked with the state on efforts to save the charr population on Big Reed Pond. He said the move toward using advanced tools such as environmental DNA is a smart one, because the fish are a unique part of the state's natural landscape and are jeopardized by climate change. The fish like cold water, and they're at the very southern end of their range in Maine.

"Who knows if this is the end, or if we are able to stabilize it," Sikorsky said. "So far, so good is the best you can say."

What sturgeon, huge and ancient fish, tell us about our ecological past and future.
For millennia, the Hudson River and its estuary teemed with Atlantic sturgeon, giant fish of an almost unfathomable evolutionary age. These anadromous fish — a term for fish that spend their adult lives in the ocean but swim into fresh water rivers to spawn — were once so plentiful in New York’s waters that well into the 19th century they were referred to as “Albany Beef,” the food of the workingman. Sturgeon were just one component of an incredibly rich, productive and diverse marine environment that has provided food security, cultural identity, and the foundation of our economic wealth for every successive wave of settlement in New York since the Lenape Indians establish

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