Technology: 'Lost' book of exquisite scientific drawings rediscovered after 190 years - PressFrom - US
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Technology'Lost' book of exquisite scientific drawings rediscovered after 190 years

20:30  22 april  2019
20:30  22 april  2019 Source:   nationalgeographic.com

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After reading the book and looking at his evidence, I think David Hockney is right in his rather controversial assertion. Wonderful book ! Fascinating interpretation of the great turn into mimesis in Renaissance and after . I actually replaced a copy that I had loaned to someone years ago.

'Lost' book of exquisite scientific drawings rediscovered after 190 years© Photograph by Robert Clark

Caesalpinia pulcherrima is a species of flowering shrub found in the tropics and subtropics of the Americas. This drawing of the plant, seen in the archives of the Rare and Manuscript Collections of Cornell University Library, is the work of Anne Wollstonecraft, who created volumes of detailed botany illustrations in 19th-century Cuba. Rediscovered after almost 200 years, her work includes historical facts, indigenous applications, poetry, and personal observations about more than a hundred plant types.

Lost for 190 years, a three-volume manuscript blooming with vivid color drawings of Cuban flora has resurfaced in upstate New York.

Nondescript marbled cardboard covers and a title page in cursive handwriting announce Specimens of the Plants & Fruits of the Island of Cuba by Mrs. A.K. Wollstonecraft. This simplicity belies the contents of the slim, well-worn volumes. Pages and pages contain 121 illustrated plates showing plants such as red cordia sebestena, deep purple Lagerstroemia, and white angel’s trumpet in consummate detail.

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In late 2014 the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul added a monkey, a tapir, a weasel-like species called the tayra and 18 butterflies to its red list of endangered species. One of those butterflies, a metallic-winged species known only as Stichelia pelotensis, was a bit of a mystery.

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Accompanying them are 220 pages of English-language descriptions relating historical facts, indigenous applications, poetry, and personal observations. Hewing faithfully to scientific conventions, the illustrations show vegetation, life cycles, and dissections of reproductive parts. Some pressed plant material is taped in. The author writes that she did not consult botanists or receive any help with her work.

“A jewel of botanical literature in Cuba,” is how Cuban botanist Miguel Esquivel describes the work, classifying it among the greatest discoveries of its kind in recent times. (Also find out how historians rediscovered an alchemy manuscript by Isaac Newton.)

“I think the manuscript by Anne Wollstonecraft is of great importance,” says ethnobotanist Paul Cox, executive director of Brain Chemistry Labs in Jackson, Wyoming. “Although the plants that she profiles in her drawings and descriptions are generally common, the detailed notes she makes of indigenous uses add a whole new dimension to understanding their possible utility, and could be used today to guide researchers in discovering new pharmaceuticals.”

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However, a recently rediscovered manuscript co-written by the author expresses skepticism toward the paranormal. Lovecraft began ghostwriting works for Houdini, including a lost essay criticizing astrology, before starting on The Cancer of Superstition.

For example, she notes that roots from the soursop tree were used as a fish poisoning antidote, and its leaves as an antiparasitic and antiepileptic. She also suggests that "soursop" comes from a phonetic approximation of the island’s indigenous inhabitants’ name for the tree, suir sach, which could help explain a paradoxical moniker for a fruit described as sickly sweet.

But if not for historian Emilio Cueto, a retired attorney and self-described collector of all things Cuban, Wollstonecraft and her work may have remained in obscurity.

Word of mouth

In 1828, Cuban exiles and human rights advocates Father Félix Varela and José Antonio Saco mentioned an American woman in Cuba drawing Cuban plants in their periodical El Mansajero Semanal. Almost a century later, in 1912, Cuban scholar and thinker Carlos M. Trelles cited the work, sight unseen. The citations said that New York Horticultural Society members had likened the work to that of respected naturalist Maria Sibylla Merian, whose legendary 1705 work Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium is considered seminal to the field of entomology.

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“That comparison triggered my belief that this was important,” Cueto says. “People exaggerate, but not that much.”

Thus began his quest.

Following Trelles’ lead, Cueto included Wollstonecraft’s work in the catalog bibliography for his own 2002 HistoryMiami Museum exhibit on Cuban flora and fauna without having laid eyes on it or knowing whether it had even survived.

“This was the reality of scholarly networks at that time,” says Anne Sauer, director of Cornell’s Rare and Manuscript Collections. “Part of the scholarly record included a scholar saying, I haven’t seen this thing, but I have heard that it exists and that it is important. You’re sort of bleeding into the realm of oral history in some cases, even.”

Each documentation of the manuscript and historical mention of the author seemed to bring a different spelling of her last name. Some use her maiden name, Kingsbury, and her first name was alternately reported as Anne and Nancy—which Jane Austen fans will recognize as a diminutive of the former.

Cueto had searched for the manuscript perhaps a hundred times or more in online library catalogs to no avail, but in March 2018, it finally popped up. The author’s name was misspelled as “Wollstonecroft,” reflecting the ambiguous last cursive vowel on the manuscript’s title page. Still, Cueto knew what he had found.

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Drawing of the corvettes Descubierta and Atrevida. The scientific journal of the trip was lost but recovered in 1885. The first circumnavigation of Australia. The work of scientific observation was interrupted due to damage and many specimens transferred to HMS Porpoise were lost when it sank.

However, the book that contained the last known mention of the fiber bundle had not been read in over 100 years . In addition to rediscovering the VOF, the researchers did more work and were able to find out why this structure essentially fizzled out from history.

“I said, Oh my God! This is that lady. This is what I’ve been looking for. This is what everybody has been looking for!” Cueto says. “It was covered by a series of unfortunate misspellings and access to catalogs.”

After his Archimedes moment, however, he couldn’t find the actual manuscript; the catalog didn’t show him where it was. That’s when he called on University of Florida Library Dean Judith Russell, with whom he had collaborated for Cuba exhibits. She figured out that it was at Cornell University, which received it in 1923 from a faculty member, the author’s descendant. Having caught Cueto’s infectious excitement, Russell joined him on a field trip to Ithaca to see the volumes.

“Both of us tried to moderate our expectations,” Russell says. “We get there, and, My God, they are full botanical drawings with pages of narrative. And they’re exquisite.”

Women in 'stem'

Based on some genealogy sleuthing, Russel reports that Wollstonecraft died in 1828 at age 46, leaving incomplete entries, untranscribed notes and loose draft paper among the volumes.

“She was not finished,” Russell says. “It gives you goosebumps, you know, how close we came to losing it.”

Cueto is now working to introduce Wollstonecraft, the sister-in-law of famed women’s rights advocate Mary Wollstonecraft, to new generations. He has traveled to her adopted hometown of Matanzas in search of her grave and contemporaneous mentions in local newspaper archives, and he surmises that she was among the U.S. citizens who flocked to the Caribbean island in the 19th century for health reasons.

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The lost collection was rediscovered after library workers entered a storage area that had not been opened since the 1950's and realized the historical significance of what they had found. Based on an examination by an expert, some the newfound occult works may have been stolen from Norwegian

After delays, the voyage began on 27 December 1831; it lasted almost five years . As FitzRoy had intended, Darwin spent most of that time on land investigating geology and making natural history collections, while HMS Beagle surveyed and charted coasts.[11][42]

His many-splendored vision includes having the newfound manuscript on display at the National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington, D.C., where it could be seen by millions who traverse the nation’s capital. He also envisions the manuscript finally published as a book, with a foreword recounting how this lost work came to light. And he wants a Spanish translation, to make it more accessible to Cuban audiences.

So far, the manuscript has been digitized and is available for all to experience online.

“We have uncovered a new American scientist and artist who has been forgotten by those disciplines,” Cueto says. “Had she lived further, she would have been a major force in illustration.”

Czerne Reid is a science writer originally from St. Elizabeth, Jamaica. She is a lecturer at the University of Florida College of Medicine and education co-chair for the National Association of Science Writers. Follow Czerne on Twitter and LinkedIn.

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