Technology: Apollo moon rocks help transform understanding of the universe - - PressFrom - US
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TechnologyApollo moon rocks help transform understanding of the universe

14:05  16 june  2019
14:05  16 june  2019 Source:   msn.com

NASA almost didn't televise the first moon landing

NASA almost didn't televise the first moon landing Mission control might never have witnessed Neil Armstrong take his first steps on the moon if it weren't for the vision of men like Eugene Shoemaker . Geologists Ivo Luccitta and Jerry Schaber say Shoemaker, who was their boss and a top gun at the U.S. Geological Survey, made a lot of stuff happen on that historic mission. Originally, NASA didn't want to televise the iconic moment, they said. "We worked very hard here to use television in our field exercises and show them how valuable it was," Luccitta said. As the story goes, Shoemaker had a lot of convincing to do when it came to NASA.

Studying Apollo rocks has given scientists an understanding of how the Moon was created, roughly at the same time as Earth some 4.3 to 4.4 billion years “Six missions to the Moon transformed our understanding of the universe ,” he said. “Imagine what happens when we’re going there for weeks

The Moon rocks returned by the Apollo 11 astronauts. Credit: NASA. For the sake of their study “Our work ties together physical and chemical constraints and helps us understand how the moon These findings have not only determined the age of the Moon with a high degree of accuracy (and for

Apollo moon rocks help transform understanding of the universe© Chris Lefkow Moon rocks brought back by Apollo astronauts on display at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas

Moon rocks look rather nondescript -- they are often gray in color -- but for NASA planetary scientist Samuel Lawrence, they are the "most precious materials on Earth."

What is certain is that the lunar samples first gathered by Apollo 11's Neil Armstrong nearly 50 years ago have helped transform our understanding of the cosmos.

Apollo astronauts collected 842 pounds (382 kilograms) of rocks and soil during their six missions to the Moon between 1969 and 1972 and brought it all back to Earth.

Apollo astronauts celebrate 50 years since first moon landing

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For 50 years, research on these rocks has transformed our understanding of the moon Other rocks have helped us “see beyond the moon ” to the history of the whole solar system Sarah Kaplan Sarah Kaplan is a science reporter covering news from around the nation and across the universe .

Apollo 17 Moon Rock on display. Credit: National Space Centre/NASA. Finally, we have the proof that the Moon landings actually happened right here on Earth, in the form of Moon rocks . These rocks have been shared with international scientists and match the characteristics of the Apollo Moon rocks .

"The Moon is the Rosetta Stone of the solar system," Lawrence, who works at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, said in an interview with AFP. "It's the cornerstone of planetary science."

"People don't fully appreciate just how important studying the Apollo samples was for understanding the solar system and the universe around us," he said.

"Many of the discoveries that we've made in planetary science, not just on the Moon, but on Mercury, on Mars, on some of the asteroids, directly relate to some of the results that we obtained during the Apollo missions."

Studying Apollo rocks has given scientists an understanding of how the Moon was created, roughly at the same time as Earth some 4.3 to 4.4 billion years ago.

Debris spent the next several hundred million years coalescing in Earth orbit into the Moon we have today, explained Lawrence.

Apollo 11 flag, flight plan page and roll of film used on the Moon are up for auction

Apollo 11 flag, flight plan page and roll of film used on the Moon are up for auction An American flag that was flown into orbit during Apollo 11 is among a host of artifacts from the historic mission that are up for auction this week. require(["medianetNativeAdOnArticle"], function (medianetNativeAdOnArticle) { medianetNativeAdOnArticle.getMedianetNativeAds(true); }); The flag is flight-certified signed by Apollo 11 Command Module pilot Michael Collins.

The Apollo Moon Rocks by Luna Fracchia. Build Background Help students use their knowledge about the moon to visualize the selection. Text and Graphic Features Remind students that they can use the information provided in the graphic features to help them better understand what they read in

Yet the scientific legacy of the Apollo programme has been profound. Here we report on how it gave us a new understanding of the universe and how Neil Armstrong's "small step" Rocks brought home by Apollo astronauts revolutionised our thinking about Earth and its peers, says Dana Mackenzie.

"We learned that the interior structure of the Moon is like the Earth," he said. "It has a crust, it has a mantle and it has a core."

And while life evolved on Earth, "the Moon is lifeless," he said.

- New discoveries -

Several moon rocks are on display at the Johnson Space Center, where they attract hundreds of thousands of visitors every year.

President Richard Nixon also gave moon rocks from Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 to all of the nations of the world -- 135, at the time -- as a token of US goodwill.

But most of the moon rocks are kept at NASA's Lunar Sample Laboratory in Houston. Another cache of samples is stored at White Sands, New Mexico.

"They're kept in sealed sample containers in a secure vault that's capable of surviving hurricanes and many other natural disasters," Lawrence said.

Lunar samples are being handed out this year to scientists around the country for further study to mark the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission.

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The Apollo 11 Moon landing was a feat for the ages. With the help of the NASA History Office This confirms a key part of our basic understanding of the chemistry of the early universe . In the image above are three technicians studying an Apollo 14 Moon rock in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at

Third-party evidence for Apollo Moon landings is evidence, or analysis of evidence, about Moon landings that does not come from either NASA or the U.S. government (the first party)

"We're very careful," Lawrence said. "These are the most precious materials on Earth and they go through a rigorous process when scientists request a sample."

And while the samples have been in NASA hands for five decades, new discoveries are still being made.

"The rocks haven't changed but our ability to analyze them has in terms of laboratory equipment," Lawrence said.

Among the recent discoveries? Evidence of water.

"We're not talking about lots of water," Lawrence said. "But it's there and we didn't really appreciate it during the Apollo era."

Lawrence said he is excited about the possibility of sending astronauts back to the Moon, a goal President Donald Trump has set for 2024.

"The (Apollo) astronauts only directly explored an area that's roughly the size of a large suburban shopping mall," Lawrence said. "There's a lot of places on the Moon that we haven't yet explored."

"Six missions to the Moon transformed our understanding of the universe," he said. "Imagine what happens when we're going there for weeks or months at a time. It's going to be pretty spectacular."

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