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Technology Quantum leap in computing as scientists claim 'supremacy'

17:41  23 october  2019
17:41  23 october  2019 Source:   msn.com

Google may have just ushered in an era of ‘quantum supremacy’

  Google may have just ushered in an era of ‘quantum supremacy’ ‘The first computation that can only be performed on a quantum processor’Google’s quantum computer was reportedly able to solve a calculation — proving the randomness of numbers produced by a random number generator — in 3 minutes and 20 seconds that would take the world’s fastest traditional supercomputer, Summit, around 10,000 years. This effectively means that the calculation cannot be performed by a traditional computer, making Google the first to demonstrate quantum supremacy.

Scientists claimed Wednesday to have achieved a near-mythical state of computing in which a "This demonstration of quantum supremacy over today's leading classical algorithms on the world's leading supercomputers is truly a remarkable achievement," William Oliver, a computer researcher at

Quantum supremacy is the potential ability of quantum computing devices to solve problems that classical computers practically cannot. Quantum advantage is the potential to solve problems faster.

Scientists claimed Wednesday to have achieved a near-mythical state of computing in which a new generation of machine vastly outperforms the world's fastest super-computer, known as "quantum supremacy".

Artist's rendition of the Sycamore processor mounted in the cryostat and Photograph of the Sycamore processor.© Forest Stearns, Google AI Quantum Artist in Residence / Erik Lucero, Research Scientist and Lead Pro... Artist's rendition of the Sycamore processor mounted in the cryostat and Photograph of the Sycamore processor.

A team of experts working on Google's Sycamore machine said their quantum system had executed a calculation in 200 seconds that would have taken a classic computer 10,000 years to complete.

Google may have taken first step towards quantum computing 'supremacy'

  Google may have taken first step towards quantum computing 'supremacy' Google may have made a breakthrough on the path toward creating a viable quantum computer. In a research paper briefly published to NASA's website and only seen by the Financial Times, the company reportedly claims to have achieved a feat known as "quantum supremacy." That is, the search giant says it has successfully created a computer that's able to complete a calculation that is virtually impossible for traditional computers to perform. Google says Sycamore, its 53-qubit quantum computer, was able to calculate a proof in three minutes and 20 seconds that shows the numbers created by a random number generator are in fact random.

The age of quantum computing may have begun not with a flashy press conference, but with an internet leak. According to a paper posted briefly—and Although the specific computation has no known use, the result means scientists have passed a milestone known as “ quantum supremacy .”

Whoever turns out to be right, quantum supremacy is a largely symbolic achievement; the specific task assigned to In this quantum realm, electrons leap instantaneously from one energy state to another. Particles can exist in multiple states at the same time, a phenomenon known as “superposition.”

A rival team at IBM has already expressed scepticism about their claim.

But if verified and harnessed, the Google device could make even the world's most powerful supercomputers -- capable of performing a giddying 20,000 trillion calculations per second -- look like an early 2000s flip-phone.

Regular computers, even the fastest, function in binary fashion: they carry out tasks using tiny fragments of data known as bits that are only ever either 1 or 0.

Fragments of data on a quantum computer, however, can be both 1 and 0 at the same time, harnessing some of the most mind-boggling powers of quantum mechanics to process exponentially larger amounts of information.

These fragments are known as qubits, and due to their dual-state nature can drastically accumulate computing power.

IBM questions Google quantum computing claims

  IBM questions Google quantum computing claims IBM has publicly called out Google's claim that it reached quantum supremacy.Quantum supremacy is a concept which was originally put forth by Caltech professor John Preskill and in order to reach it, a company would need to demonstrate that a quantum computer could do something that today's classical computers cannot.

In a new scientific paper, Google researchers claim for the first time to have demonstrated " quantum supremacy ," where a quantum computer outperforms a traditional one.

The company claims a quantum computer has surpassed conventional devices for the first time. However, scientists have struggled to build working devices with enough qubits to make them competitive with conventional types of computer .

In a study published in Nature, the international team designed a quantum processer made up of 54 qubits and used it to perform a task related to random-number generation.

The Sycamore sampled and verified the accuracy of the solutions all within 200 seconds, a process that on a regular machine would take 10,000 years -- several hundreds of millions of times faster, in other words.

"This demonstration of quantum supremacy over today's leading classical algorithms on the world's leading supercomputers is truly a remarkable achievement," William Oliver, a computer researcher at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wrote in a comment piece on the discovery.

He likened the breakthrough to the first manned flight taken by the Wright Brothers at the beginning of the 20th Century.

"Their aeroplane wasn't the first airborne vehicle to fly and it didn't solve any pressing transport problem," Oliver wrote.

Google says it's achieved quantum supremacy

  Google says it's achieved quantum supremacy Google is standing by its claim that it's achieved quantum supremacy -- marking a major milestone in computing research. The company first made the claim back in September, and while disputed by competitors, Google's research paper has now been published in the scientific journal Nature. Quantum supremacy is a big deal, because it encapsulates the ability of quantum computers to solve problems that current technology couldn't even begin toQuantum supremacy is a big deal, because it encapsulates the ability of quantum computers to solve problems that current technology couldn't even begin to attempt.

Google claims to have realised ' quantum supremacy ' after running an experiment to test the power of quantum computers . This is known as quantum supremacy . Google's scientists tested a 54-qubit ( quantum bit) processor named Sycamore, and it performed a target computation in 200 seconds.

[ Quantum computing , one of the “jazziest and most mysterious concepts” in science , has struggled to come of age.] Understanding how a quantum computer is different requires a philosophical leap : accepting the Dr. Lidar said he expected that other scientists would try to disprove Google’s claims .

"It is what the event represented, rather than what it practically accomplished that was paramount. And so it is with this first report of quantum computational supremacy."

Google's CEO Sundar Pichai tweeted Wednesday he was "very proud" of the team's "big breakthrough".

- Not so fast? -

The quest for quantum supremacy is still far from over, however. The authors themselves acknowledge the need for better hardware and more sophisticated monitoring techniques in order to truly harness the power of quantum.

Some immediate applications of quantum computing could be in encryption software and AI, but its calculations could eventually lead to more efficient solar panels, drug design and even quicker and better financial transactions.

Wednesday's announcement was not without controversy.

After a leaked draft of the Google lab's paper appeared online last month, chip-maker IBM, which runs its own quantum computing programme, said the boasts of the Sycamore computer's feats were exaggerated.

Instead of 10,000 years for an ordinary supercomputer to match Sycamore's performance, IBM scientists in a blog post claimed it would be more like two-and-a-half years using the most sophisticated traditional processors.

"Because the original meaning of the term 'quantum supremacy'... was to describe the point where quantum computers can do things that classical computers can't, this threshold has not been met," they wrote.

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Explainer: Google hails 'quantum supremacy', but don't chuck out your PC just yet .
Explainer: Google hails 'quantum supremacy', but don't chuck out your PC just yetGiven the task of finding a pattern in a seemingly random series of numbers, Google's quantum computer produced an answer in 3 minutes and 20 seconds. It estimates that the Summit supercomputer https://www.ibm.com/thought-leadership/summit-supercomputer at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee would take 10,000 years to complete the task.

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