Technology During the Last Ice Age, Erratic Temperatures in Greenland Triggered Changes All Over the World

01:52  21 august  2020
01:52  21 august  2020 Source:   gizmodo.com

At Crèvecoeur-le-Grand, she launched her loose tea business

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This modern temperature reconstruction, combined with observational records over the past century, shows that current temperatures in Greenland are warmer than any period in the past 2,000 years. That said, they are likely still cooler than during the early part of the current geological epoch – the

Visitors look out on to free-floating ice jammed into Ilulissat Icefjord in Greenland during unseasonably warm weather in July 2019. Climate change is having a profound effect in Greenland , where over the last several decades Melting ice could potentially cause a large rise in the world ’s sea levels.

During the Last Glacial Period some 11,500 years ago, Greenland went through massive changes called interstadial events. Then, it quickly oscillated between lower and higher temperatures, which melted and then refroze (and then melted again) massive ice sheets in the region. Geological records appear to show that around the same time that this was happening in Greenland, Earth’s lower latitudes were experiencing similarly swift and dramatic climate changes, but it’s been hard for scientists to determine exactly when all of these abrupt shifts occurred. New research offers some clues as to what happened.

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During the last ice age , which finished about 12,000 years ago, enormous ice masses covered huge swathes of land now inhabited by millions of people. An ice age is triggered when summer temperatures in the northern hemisphere fail to rise above freezing for years. This means that winter

During an ice age , there are significant temperature differences between the equator and the poles By the late 19th century, ice age theory gradually began to gain widespread acceptance over the Floating ice at the calving front of Greenland ’s Kangerdlugssuaq glacier, photographed in 2011 Anthropogenic Climate Change : The exact role played by all the mechanisms that ice ages are

a close up of a snow covered mountain: An aerial photo taken in August 2019 shows a view of a Greenland glacier. © Photo: Jonathan Nackstrand (Getty Images) An aerial photo taken in August 2019 shows a view of a Greenland glacier.

The new study, published in Science on Thursday, is based on scientists’ examination of stalagmite records from all over the world. The research was possible because stalagmites form in layers, and each layer preserves records of what environmental conditions were like when it formed.

The authors’ observations suggest that these changes in Greenland were connected to abrupt climate changes in faraway places—including even as far away as the tropics.

Records of Greenland’s ice cores show that the region experienced 25 major rapid temperature fluctuations during the Last Glacial Period. Those shifts, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger events, have been associated with sharp increases in air temperature over Greenland of up to a stunning 60 degrees Fahrenheit (16 degrees Celsius) in just a few decades, which rapidly melted ice. Though the warming periods were very quick, the hot conditions they created persisted for hundreds of years before giving way to a more gradual cooling period.

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The last ice age wasn’t one long big chill. Mysteriously, ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica show that these sudden AMOC slowdowns have long been suspected as the cause of the climate swings during the last ice age , which lasted from 110,000 to 15,000 years ago, but never definitively

During the last Ice Age , there were many large, interesting mammals, like the saber-toothed cats, giant ground sloths, mastodons, and mammoths. These animals have long since gone extinct and are known mostly from fossils, from frozen, mummified carcasses, and even from ancient cave drawings.

Based on that knowledge, the researchers examined 63 ancient climate records in stalagmites from caves around the world, across Europe, Asia, and South America. They found that changes seen there lined up with the changes in Greenland. Europe saw swift temperature increases and alterations in rainfall that lined up with when Dansgaard-Oeschger events were happening, as did Asia and South America’s monsoon regions.

The researchers hope to bring these methods to studying even more stalagmite samples in order to determine whether or not Greenland’s Dansgaard-Oeschger events impacted regions even farther south. They also hope their findings will help scientists making future climate predictions, because they illuminate how interconnected our planet’s climate systems are.

Rapid climate change is a scary prospect in our present climate where humans have pumped carbon dioxide into the atmosphere at a rate unseen in millions of years. Another paper published on Thursday chronicled the record Greenland ice loss last summer. Other rapid shifts in the past year include huge fires in the Arctic and Australia, Arctic sea ice extent falling off a cliff in recent months, the sudden collapse of Canada’s last ice shelf, and the fact that we’re racing toward one of the hottest years on record. Sudden swings in the climate are an area of active research, including if (or when) we could cross tipping points. Looking at the past is one way to gauge that and where the pressure points may be.

China's Arctic ambitions have revived US interest in the region .
As part of its global Belt and Road Initiative, China is investing in the Arctic — setting up research stations, investing in mining and energy, and working with Russia to create a new sea route through the Arctic Ocean. It's also stoked concerns from the US.The harbor of Nuuk, Greenland's capital.

usr: 1
This is interesting!