US ‘Give me a few hours’: How Eisenhower, armed with only a typewriter, planned the U.S. response to Pearl Harbor

15:35  07 december  2019
15:35  07 december  2019 Source:   washingtonpost.com

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President Franklin Roosevelt called the unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor a “date which will live in infamy,” in a famous address to the nation delivered after Japan’ s deadly strike against U . S . naval and military forces in Hawaii. He also asked Congress to declare war.

The Pearl Harbor attack was the worst defeat in U . S . history. American industry armed not only U . S . Forces, but British and Russian forces. You know how the story turns out. Less than four years after America entered the war – four years after America had to turn around its peacetime economy and

At almost the exact moment hundreds of Japanese planes dropped armor-piercing bombs on Pearl Harbor — killing thousands of Americans and damaging eight battleships in a deadly surprise attack — Brig. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower decided to take a nap.

a group of people standing in a military uniform: Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower with paratroopers in England shortly before the D-Day invasion on June 6, 1944. (U.S. Army Signal Corps/AP) Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower with paratroopers in England shortly before the D-Day invasion on June 6, 1944. (U.S. Army Signal Corps/AP)

Eisenhower, as usual, was working through the weekend. But around noon on Sunday, Dec. 7, 1941, he yawned and shoved aside the paperwork spilling across his desk in San Antonio, where he served as chief of staff for troops stationed at Fort Sam Houston.

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Eisenhower ' s farewell address (sometimes referred to as " Eisenhower ' s farewell address to the nation") was the final public speech of Dwight D. Eisenhower as the 34th President of the United States, delivered in a television broadcast on January 17, 1961.

Pearl Harbor is a U . S . naval base near Honolulu, Hawaii, that was the scene of a devastating surprise attack by Japanese forces on December 7, 1941. The Japanese government believed that the only way to solve its economic and demographic problems was to expand into its neighbor’ s territory and

Telling an assistant he was “dead tired,” the 51-year-old struggled into his car and drove home. Don’t wake me, Eisenhower instructed his wife, Mamie, before falling into bed: “[I don’t want to be] bothered by anyone wanting to play bridge.”

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History compelled Mamie to disobey.

Eisenhower awoke to an urgent call from military higher-ups informing him of the news from Pearl Harbor. The next day, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked Congress to declare war on Japan.

Four hectic, harried days after that, Eisenhower received another call — this one demanding he “hop a plane” and travel to Washington to develop the U.S. response to Japanese aggression, writes Stephen E. Ambrose in “Eisenhower: Soldier and President.”

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Addresses—plural—yes, there were two in 1961 although hardly anyone, even those who were around then, can recall the second one. President Eisenhower ’ s chief speechwriter was Malcolm Moos, a professor of political science at Johns Hopkins, a man of great charm and ambition

A series of events led to the attack on Pearl Harbor . War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation' s military forces planned for in the 1920 s , though real tension did not begin until the 1931 invasion of Manchuria by Japan.

It was a pivotal moment for the nation and for Eisenhower, who up to that point had “impressed every superior for whom he had worked,” but failed to garner any accomplishments worth mentioning “with pride [to] his grandchildren,” according to Ambrose.

“Had he died in 1941, at an age when most great men have their monumental achievements behind them, he would be unknown today,” Ambrose wrote. Speeding to Washington, “[Eisenhower] may have dared to hope that the war would give him an opportunity to use his talents and skills … for the good of his country and perhaps even for the good of his own career.”

But things did not start well for the ambitious, anxious future president.

a factory with smoke coming out of it with Pearl Harbor in the background: The destroyer USS Shaw explodes after being hit by bombs during the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. (AP) The destroyer USS Shaw explodes after being hit by bombs during the Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941. (AP)

Eisenhower had packed a small bag, told Mamie he would be back soon and boarded an afternoon plane to the nation’s capital — only to be grounded by bad weather a few hundred miles into the flight. Undeterred, he boarded a train in Dallas and chugged into Union Station relatively early on Dec. 15.

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After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the U . S . government responded with immediate action (including rescue operations at the site of the World Trade Center and grounding civilian aircraft), and long-term action, including investigations, legislative changes, military action and restoration projects.

The consequences of the attack on Pearl Harbor were many and significant. From the outbreak of World War II on September 1, 1939 to December 8, 1941, the United States was officially neutral

He immediately rushed to the War Department offices on Constitution Avenue (at the time, the Pentagon was still under construction). There, Army Chief of Staff Gen. George Marshall met him with a stunning request.

Marshall, known throughout the military as an ingenious but stern and demanding taskmaster, fixed Eisenhower with a steely glare and demanded, “What should be our general line of action?”

“Eisenhower was startled,” Ambrose wrote. “He had just arrived, knew little more than what he had read in the newspapers … was not up to date on the war plans for the Pacific, and had no staff to help him prepare an answer.”

For a few seconds, an awkward silence reigned. Then, returning Marshall’s gaze, he replied simply: “Give me a few hours.”

He retreated to a desk, stuffed yellow tissue paper into a typewriter and — without any further preparation or research (and without the benefit of anything like the Internet) — came up with a strategy to fight the Japanese in the Philippines. His very first order of business: tapping out the title, “Steps To Be Taken.”

Conventional military wisdom dictated a swift retreat from the Philippines to Australia, where U.S. troops could build a base to launch a counteroffensive, according to Ambrose.

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But the last few days have ushered in an explosion of this rhetoric from politicians and journalists alike. If Russian election meddling is on par with the Pearl Harbor and 9/11 attacks, then should the U . S To borrow their rhetoric, imagine if Roosevelt had confined his response to Pearl Harbor to

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, an event he famously called "a date which will live in infamy", Roosevelt Roosevelt supervised the mobilization of the U . S . economy to support the war effort, and implemented a Europe first strategy, making the defeat of Germany a

“But the honor of the Army was at stake, and the prestige of the United States in the Far East,” Ambrose wrote. As Eisenhower concluded in his report to Marshall: “The people of China, of the Philippines, of the Dutch East Indies will be watching us. … They may excuse failure but they will not excuse abandonment.”

So he formulated a daring compromise. Eisenhower advocated shipping pilots, planes and weaponry out to Australia in preparation for a base there, while nonetheless keeping — and, as far as possible, bolstering — U.S. troops already stationed in the Philippines under Gen. Douglas MacArthur.

Just as dusk settled over the nation’s capital, Eisenhower returned to Marshall’s office bearing his typewritten recommendations. He knew the plan was fraught with potential pitfalls: “We must take great risks and spend any amount of money required,” Eisenhower wrote in the document. “We dare not fail.”

Marshall pored over the pages, looking grim, while Eisenhower watched. Once he finished reading, he paused and regarded the younger man with a piercing stare.

“I agree with you,” Marshall said finally, in barely audible tones, according to Ambrose. “Do your best to save [the Philippines].”

a group of people in uniform: Eisenhower gives the order of the day, “Full victory, nothing else,” to paratroopers in England just before the launch of the D-Day invasion on June 6, 1944. (U.S. Army Signal Corps Photo/AP)© AP/AP Eisenhower gives the order of the day, “Full victory, nothing else,” to paratroopers in England just before the launch of the D-Day invasion on June 6, 1944. (U.S. Army Signal Corps Photo/AP)

Marshall placed Eisenhower in control of the Philippines and the Far Eastern Section of the War Plans Division, according to Ambrose. That morning, Eisenhower had felt certain he was embarking on what would be a very short trip to Washington. Instead, he would not leave the nation’s capital again (apart from a 10-day visit to Britain) for almost eight months.

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How did things get so bad between the US and Japan in the lead up to WWII? It all comes down to power and resources.

In the interview with Cirignano, Stinnett said that besides a few favorable reviews by the New York What is the lesson that we can derive from the U . S . government’ s duplicity in the Pearl Harbor Not only has he uncovered the truth behind Pearl Harbor , but in so doing he has exposed one of the

During that period, he labored to the point of exhaustion in a desperate bid to save the Philippines and, later, to develop a strategy to fight Germany, as well as Japan. Eisenhower found a temporary home with relatives who lived in Falls Church, Va., though he hardly ever saw them.

“He never saw the house in daylight,” Ambrose wrote. “His driver would pick him up before dawn to take him to his office on Constitution Avenue, and bring him back at 10:30 p.m. or later. … He wolfed down his meals, often no more than a hot dog and coffee, at his desk.”

He missed Christmas 1941, countless family events and even his father’s death and funeral in March 1942. The only expression of grief Eisenhower allowed himself on the day of his father’s passing was to leave work slightly earlier than usual, at 7:30 p.m.

“War is not soft,” Eisenhower wrote in his diary the next day. “It has not time to indulge even the deepest and most sacred of emotions.”

Despite his work ethic, Eisenhower’s record in the Philippines is mixed at best. As Ambrose put it: “His efforts were worse than fruitless, as [General] MacArthur came to lump Eisenhower together with Marshall and Roosevelt as the men responsible for the debacle on the islands,” which the United States ultimately lost in a humiliating, morale-shattering defeat that cost tens of thousands of American lives.

Nonetheless, Eisenhower proved his worth.

“Throughout that period, and in the months that followed, Eisenhower impressed Marshall deeply,” Ambrose wrote. “So deeply that Marshall came to agree … that Eisenhower was the best officer in the Army.”

Ceremony to remember those killed in Pearl Harbor attack

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The United States wasn't the only nation to come under Japanese attack on 7 December 1941. As Evan Mawdsley reveals, that day also saw the Imperial Army launch an assault on the British colony of Malaya – with devastating results for Britain' s presence in south -east Asia

Pearl Harbor attack, surprise aerial attack on the U . S . naval base at Pearl Harbor on Oahu Island, Hawaii How long did the attack last? The first Japanese dive-bomber appeared over Pearl Harbor at 7 Over the next half hour , Pearl Harbor ’ s airfields and docked ships were subjected to a merciless

Marshall promoted Eisenhower to major general, then commanding general of the European Theater of Operations and eventually (by Roosevelt’s dictate) Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. As Supreme Commander, Eisenhower’s successful oversight of the D-Day invasion earned him a place in history and set him on the path to the American presidency.

The later, glowing successes — both Eisenhower’s personal victories and those won by the Allied Forces in World War II — would probably have been impossible without those initial, tense hours in Washington. Everything stemmed from Marshall’s decision to set Eisenhower a near-impossible task, and from Eisenhower’s refusal to back down.

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Man injured in Pearl Harbor shooting released from hospital .
A civilian worker injured in a shooting at Pearl Harbor’s shipyard last week was released from the hospital on Tuesday. The Queen’s Medical Center in Honolulu said Roger Nakamine left after spending almost a week in the hospital. An active duty sailor shot Nakamine and two other civilian Department of Defense employees with his service rifle last Wednesday. The other two civilians died of their wounds. The shooter used his service pistol to kill himself. He has been identified as 22-year-old Seaman Gabriel Antonio Romero, a watchstander who was providing security to the USS Columbia submarine undergoing maintenance at the shipyard.

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