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US Coronavirus treatment: The US has started human testing of a drug to treat the novel coronavirus

16:20  26 february  2020
16:20  26 february  2020 Source:   cnn.com

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As the coronavirus outbreak in China continues to spread, having infected over 24,000 people so far, scientists around the world are racing to find a In fact, none of the handful of coronaviruses known to infect humans has an approved treatment , and people who are infected typically receive care

China has kick- started a clinical trial to speedily test a drug for the novel coronavirus infection as the nation rushes therapies for those afflicted and scours for While investors are bullish, it typically takes years to research and develop a novel medicine for any disease, with viral illnesses posing particular

Hope for treating the novel coronavirus could be on the horizon, as the first US study of a drug to treat the illness is underway.

a group of people posing for the camera © Provided by CNN

So far, there is no cure or vaccine for the virus, which has infected more than 80,000 people and killed over 2,700 worldwide in the past few months.

News of the drug testing came Tuesday, just as a federal health official warned that the virus will eventually start spreading in US communities.

A clinical trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the antiviral drug remdesivir in adults diagnosed with coronavirus started at the University of Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, the National Institutes of Health said.

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There is currently no vaccine to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The best way to prevent illness is to avoid being exposed to this virus. However, as a reminder, CDC always recommends everyday preventive actions to help prevent the spread of respiratory diseases, including

The US has at least 11 confirmed cases of the coronavirus that has killed 360 people in China. Gilead is not the only drug firm hoping to find a successful treatment for the coronavirus . Big Pharma rivals Johnson & Johnson (JNJ) and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) are also working on vaccines.

a person wearing a purple dress: A medical professional is seen at a preliminary testing facility at the National Medical Center where patients suspected of contracting coronavirus in Seoul, South Korea. © Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images A medical professional is seen at a preliminary testing facility at the National Medical Center where patients suspected of contracting coronavirus in Seoul, South Korea. The first participant is an American who was evacuated from the Diamond Princess cruise ship docked in Japan.

Also on Tuesday, top officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warned about the potential spreading of the novel coronavirus in the US.

"We expect we will see community spread in this country," said Dr. Nancy Messonnier, director of the CDC's National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "It's not so much a question of if this will happen anymore, but rather more a question of exactly when this will happen and how many people in this country will have severe illness."

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U . S . tests experimental treatment and watches for disruptions of Chinese drug supplies. A clinical trial has begun in Nebraska to test whether an experimental drug can treat the new coronavirus , starting with an American who was quarantined on the Diamond Princess cruise ship in Japan, the National

In the case of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), researchers are already trying antivirals widely used to treat Protease inhibitors are also being tested against a third coronavirus . Saudi Arabia now has a carefully designed study Development of entirely new treatments has started as well.

a man standing in front of a screen: Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar leaves after speaking during a press conference on the coordinated public health response to the 2019 coronavirus. © Olivier Douliery/AFP/Getty Images Health and Human Services Secretary Alex Azar leaves after speaking during a press conference on the coordinated public health response to the 2019 coronavirus. There have been more than 80,000 cases of coronavirus worldwide. The death toll is now more than 2,700, the majority in mainland China.

The US has now confirmed 57 cases, US health officials said Tuesday, a number that is expected to grow.

"We are asking the American public to work with us to prepare in the expectation that this could be bad," Messonnier said.

Clinical trial for a treatment

There are currently no specific medicines approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat the novel coronavirus. Without one, a top infectious disease doctor said Tuesday, the US could see mortality rates from the coronavirus similar to those in China.

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The Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has calculated a case fatality rate of about 2% for the novel coronavirus -- meaning about 2% of those known to be infected have died. That's higher than influenza, which is about 0.1%, but much lower than severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, (9.6%) and MERS, Middle East respiratory syndrome (35%).

"I think we would expect something similar to that because we don't have an antiviral drug," Dr. Anthony Fauci told CNN's Chris Cuomo Tuesday night on "Cuomo Prime Time." "The people who are dying who require intensive care, for example in an intensive care unit -- maybe even intubation for respiratory assistance in breathing -- the Chinese have that. They have a pretty good system, and yet you're still seeing the 2% mortality. ... So if, in fact, we do get a pandemic that does impact us in this country, I think you're going to see comparable types of morbidity and mortality."

Remdesivir, the drug being tested at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, was previously tested in humans for Ebola and in animals for MERS and SARS.

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There are clinical trials of remdesivir going on in China, and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases developed the current study to match those trials, the NIH said in its news release.

Participants in the US treatment group will receive 200 milligrams of remdesivir intravenously when they're enrolled in the study. They will receive another 100 milligrams while they are hospitalized for up to 10 days total. A placebo group will receive a solution that resembles remdesivir but contains only inactive ingredients, the NIH said.

US cases rise to 57

The number of coronavirus cases in the United States rose to 57 on Tuesday, with four more patients who were on a cruise ship, the CDC said.

The current total breaks down to 40 passengers who were aboard the Diamond Princess cruise ship that was traveling in Asia, three people repatriated from China, and 14 US cases.

Of the 14 US cases, eight are in California, two in Illinois and one each in Massachusetts, Washington, Arizona and Wisconsin.

Although President Donald Trump cast coronavirus as "a problem that's going to go away," experts worry a pandemic could be in the offing, given the virus' spread in Europe and the Middle East.

The CDC is employing a twofold approach, working to contain the virus while also implementing strategies to lessen the impacts on communities, Messonnier told reporters.

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"We've also enacted the first quarantine of this scale in the US, and are supporting the State Department and (Department of Health and Human Services) in repatriating citizens from high-risk areas," she said.

In addition, the center is tracking and isolating cases when it can, issuing travel advisories for affected countries and taking on the increasingly difficult task of preventing the introduction of new cases, most notably at points of entry into the United States, she said.

Messonnier described the containment strategies as "largely successful" and said they were geared toward "buying us more time to prepare."

What to look for and what to do

The symptoms of coronavirus are similar to those of a common cold. The virus usually causes a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract illness, with symptoms including a runny nose, cough, sore throat, possibly a headache and maybe a fever, which can last for a couple of days.

For those with a weakened immune system, the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause a lower, and much more serious, respiratory tract illness such as pneumonia or bronchitis.

People may be able to reduce their risk of infection by avoiding those who are sick, avoiding touching their eyes, nose and mouth, and washing hands often with soap and water and for at least 20 seconds.

Most of the time, symptoms will go away on their own and experts advise seeking care early. People with symptoms that feel worse than a standard cold should see their doctor.

Insurers promise to cover coronavirus tests, relax coverage policies .
A major health insurance trade group is pledging its member plans will cover doctor-ordered testing for the coronavirus amid rising confusion and concern about who will bear the cost of care in an outbreak. © Cigna via AP Images Cigna announced its customers will have access to coronavirus testing "as prescribed by health practitioners." America’s Health Insurance Plans made the commitment Thursday, although it's still unclear when insurers might have to start paying for tests. So far, the CDC has picked up the tab for coronavirus diagnostics.

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