World: Oldest Evidence of Humans Outside Africa Discovered - PressFrom - US
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WorldOldest Evidence of Humans Outside Africa Discovered

05:30  11 february  2019
05:30  11 february  2019 Source:   newsweek.com

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Human ancestors left Africa far earlier than previously thought, discovery of prehistoric jawbone and tools suggest. Until recently, several converging lines of evidence – from fossils, genetics and archaeology – suggested that modern humans first dispersed from Africa into Eurasia about 60,000

Stone tools discovered in China suggest primitive humans - or a close relative - were in Africa has traditionally been seen as the engine of human evolution - where key species arose before Could we find even earlier evidence outside Africa ? If our ancient relatives were in China by two million years

New fossil finds over the past few years have been forcing anthropologists to reexamine our evolutionary path to becoming human. Now the earliest modern human fossil ever found outside the continent of Africa is pushing back the date for when our ancestors left Africa.

The fossil, an upper left jawbone with most of the teeth attached, comes from Misliya Cave in Israel and dates to 177,000-194,000 years ago. This is considerably older than any other remains from our own species, Homo sapiens, ever discovered outside of Africa, and it coincides with several other recent studies that are changing the view on our evolutionary origins and migration throughout the Old World.

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Humans left Africa at many times during their history. Living people outside Africa , for example, trace their origins to an exodus that occurred 60,000 years ago. But there had been no evidence of occupation by human relatives in Eurasia until the Dmanisi evidence at 1.8 million years ago.

“Together with the discovery last year of the earliest modern humans in Africa , our views about our origins are beginning to change very rapidly, after Another interesting aspect of the discovery is the tools found alongside the fossil, says Julia Galway-Witham, a paleoanthropologist at the Natural

African origins, then spreading from there

The earliest humans, referred to as hominins by anthropologists, lived around six to seven million years ago in Africa. These early evolutionary ancestors are recognized as belonging to the human family mainly because their bones reveal clear signs of bipedalism: They walked on two feet. It was not until around two million years ago that human ancestors first migrated out of Africa and spread throughout the Old World.

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“Our discovery means that it is necessary now to reconsider the timing of when early humans left Africa ,” said study co-author Robin Dennell of Exeter The paper offers strong evidence for a hominin presence in Asia further back than we thought, Dennell said. “There may be older evidence in places

Our ancient human relatives got around more than scientists previously thought. Researchers in China excavated stone tools that were likely made by our human ancestors some 2.12 million years ago — the earliest evidence ever discovered of the human lineage outside of Africa .

For a long time, anthropologists generally held that Homo sapiens first appeared around 200,000 years ago, in Africa. This was based on findings from genetic studies as well as fossil discoveries. Two sites in Ethiopia, Herto and Omo Kibish, have yielded early Homo sapiens fossils dated to between 160,000-195,000 years ago.

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The discovery of a fossil in Israel has revealed humans left Africa far earlier than previously thought. But the new fossil known as Misliya-1 after the cave it was found in is estimated to be between 175,000-200,000 years old - by far the oldest evidence for modern humans found outside

When did humans leave Africa ? As evidence accumulates that the history of human origins and development was much messier, with H. sapiens overlapping and They date this fossil to between 177,000 to 194,000 years, making it the earliest fossil of a modern human found outside of Africa .

But in June of 2017, researchers dated fossils from the site of Jebel Irhoud in Morocco to around 315,000 years ago and attributed them to an early phase of Homo sapiens evolution. This unexpectedly early date pushed back the origin of our species by over 100,000 years.

Until recently, the earliest human fossils from our own species discovered outside of Africa dated to around 90,000 to 120,000 years ago. Two cave sites in Israel—Qafzeh and Skhul—have yielded numerous skeletons of early modern humans. The age of these sites would suggest that our species was restricted to Africa for as long as 200,000 years before migrating out of the continent. Other sites with Homo sapiens fossils from Asia and Europe are generally younger than the finds from the Middle East.

Now an international research team, of which I was a member, has reported finding an early modern human fossil at Misliya Cave in Israel dating as far back as 177,000-194,000 years ago. This date pushes back our species’ exodus from Africa by over 50,000 years.

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The title says " Oldest human outside of Africa " which is not true, there were humans (Not Homo Sapiens) outside of Africa more than a million years It updates modern theories/ evidence , which is what science is about, piecing together the timeline. Scientists have long thought humans – or Homo

We may have gotten out of Africa and into new environments, but some populations and lineages may have gone extinct In other words, the individual from Misliya isn’t necessarily a direct ancestor to modern humans . “If the earliest modern humans are 350,000 years and older , we have hundreds

High-tech analysis of ancient remains

The Misliya fossil is just part of one individual’s jawbone. To understand the significance of the find, we needed to be sure about when this individual lived and also what species they belonged to.

To start with, the stone tools associated with the fossil, of a type known as the Early Middle Paleolithic, indicated a considerable antiquity for the specimen. Similar tool kits from other sites in the Middle East generally date to older than 160,000 years ago. To establish the jawbone’s age more precisely, several independent dating techniques were applied to the fossil itself as well as the stone tools and sediments at the site. The results came back with ages that ranged between 177,000 and 194,000 years ago.

To diagnose which species the Misliya fossil might represent, we studied the original fossil using both traditional anthropological approaches as well as the latest technological advances. We micro-CT scanned and made 3-D virtual models of the specimen to visualize the internal structures of the teeth and quantify their shapes more precisely. The results of these analyses demonstrated very clearly that the Misliya fossil is a member of our own species.

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New evidence suggests that our ancient cousins left the continent much earlier than thought. China's Loess Plateau now holds the record for housing the oldest stone tools outside of Africa , according to a Modern humans ' distant relatives left Africa earlier than previously thought—rewriting a key

The oldest evidence of humans may have been discovered . That and other weird news in this BION of the Week from Ripley's Believe It or Not! Researchers at the University of Vienna believe they have found the oldest human fossil discovered outside of Africa .

All of the anatomical features in the Misliya fossil are consistent with it being a modern human, just like us. There is nothing in the fossil that would rule it out as a Homo sapiens. And some features in the Misliya fossil’s anterior teeth seem only to occur in Homo sapiens.

Our study found these teeth lack several features that are found in earlier human species, including the Neanderthals. One of these characteristics is a thickening of the tooth crown along the edges on the inside surface of the incisor and canine. Anthropologists call this trait shoveling. We see shoveling on the teeth of previous species of hominins from before modern humans evolved. But we didn’t see it in the teeth from Misliya, supporting the idea that this jaw is from a Homo sapiens individual. Today some modern human populations actually do have shoveling on their teeth, while others do not; but in the fossil record, the only species that does not show shoveling is Homo sapiens.

Oldest Evidence of Humans Outside Africa Discovered© Gerhard Weber, University of Vienna,

Another trait we looked for is a small cusp at the base of the tooth crown on the inside surface of the incisor and canine. This feature is commonly seen in Neanderthals, but is absent in the Misliya fossil.

It’s the absence of these two dental features in the Misliya fossil, together with information from the other teeth and the jawbone itself, that tells us it came from a Homo sapiens.

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Until now, the oldest Homo sapiens fossils outside Africa had come from two other cave sites in Israel, including one also on The new discovery supports the idea that humans migrated out of Africa through a northern route, the Nile “Now we finally have fossil evidence of this migration, in addition

Evidence for archaic human species (descended from Homo heidelbergensis) having interbred with With his discovery that human mtDNA is genetically much less diverse than chimpanzee mtDNA, Wilson . ^ "Scientists discover oldest known modern human fossil outside of Africa : Analysis of

Fitting more pieces into the puzzle

The findings at Misliya coincide with a recent genetic study that offered tantalizing evidence for the influx of genetic material into the Neanderthal gene pool from Africa. The researchers relied on ancient mitochondrial DNA extracted from a Neanderthal femur (leg bone) discovered in Germany. The African species involved was not clear, but the older dates for the earliest Homo sapiens fossils at Jebel Irhoud in Morocco make it clear that modern humans were already present in Africa at this time. These genetic results suggest the possibility of an earlier modern human migration out of Africa—at least as far back as 220,000 years ago and probably earlier.

While the Misliya fossil is younger than this, it provides the first fossil evidence confirming that modern humans left Africa considerably earlier than previously believed. This series of recent studies and discoveries from disparate sources are providing new insights into our own origins and dispersal around the globe.

Rolf Quam is Associate Professor of Anthropology at Binghamton University, State University of New York

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.

The views expressed in this article are the author's own.​​​​​​

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