World: Here’s why Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro is still in power - PressFrom - US
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WorldHere’s why Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro is still in power

16:50  14 august  2019
16:50  14 august  2019 Source:   washingtonpost.com

Trump orders freeze on all Venezuelan govt assets in US

Trump orders freeze on all Venezuelan govt assets in US President Donald Trump on Monday ordered a freeze on all Venezuelan government assets in the United States and barred transactions with its authorities, in Washington's latest move against President Nicolas Maduro. © Brendan Smialowski President Donald Trump has ordered a freeze on all Venezuelan government assets in the United States Trump took the step "in light of the continued usurpation of power by Nicolas Maduro and persons affiliated with him, as well as human rights abuses," according to the order.

Here is why Maduro is so controversial: Maduro , a former bus driver, is an unlikely leader. During the 1980 s while working as a bus driver, Maduro Opponents of socialist President Nicolas Maduro say he aims to keep himself in power by stacking the planned "constituent assembly" with his allies.

Massive street protests, an economy in shambles and severe shortages have failed to dislodge the president .

Six months after the Venezuelan National Assembly swore in Juan Guaidó as the country’s acting president, few Venezuelans remain as excited about the young politician and his strategy to depose sitting president Nicolás Maduro. Maduro and his unpopular regime remain in power — despite nationwide protests, increased regional and international diplomatic pressure, and robust economic sanctions.

Here’s why Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro is still in power© Ariana Cubillos/AP Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro and first lady Cilia Flores lead a rally in Caracas on Saturday condemning the Trump administration's economic sanctions on Venezuela.

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On one side is President Nicolás Maduro , whose socialist government is seen as increasingly corrupt, inept Mr. Maduro still has powerful backers at home and abroad. Russia in particular has propped up Mr While China’ s support is important for Mr. Maduro ’ s ability to remain in power , it has been

Nicolás Maduro Moros (/məˈdʊəroʊ/; Spanish pronunciation: [nikoˈlas maˈðuɾo ˈmoɾos] (listen); born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician serving as president of Venezuela since 2013

Last week, the Trump administration introduced tougher sanctions against Maduro and his key allies, aiming to weaken the regime. These sanctions will make it harder for foreign companies to continue to do business in Venezuela and will further block the ruling coalition from accessing U.S. debt and equity markets.

But sanctions are unlikely to remove Maduro from power. Here’s why.

1.Maduro has politicized the military and diversified the security services

Maduro inherited a highly polarized political system, a buckling economy and soaring crime rates from his predecessor, Hugo Chávez. Instead of implementing any meaningful reforms, Maduro doubled down on policies that would maintain his ruling coalition’s loyalty.

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Turkey criticizes US freeze on Venezuela assets ANKARA, Turkey (AP) — Turkey has voiced its disapproval of U.S. sanctions on Venezuela, saying the move will make matters worse for ordinary Venezuelans who have suffered years of economic hardship. The United States this week froze all Venezuelan government assets in the U.S., putting the country on a short list of U.S. adversaries. Washington has also warned foreign governments and companies that they could face American retaliation if they continue to do business with Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro.

Why not allow it through? Nicolás Maduro , Venezuelan president . First of all, it' s a show, that the United States government has set up with the I know your position, President Maduro , is that there is no humanitarian crisis in Venezuela . If that is the case, why have more than three million of your

Here is a guide to which countries are backing each of them and a look at the possible reasons why . Relations between the US and Venezuela were already fraught before President Trump backed Mr Relations have continued to worsen under Mr Maduro who came to power in 2013 after Chávez died.

After Chávez, a former paratrooper, defeated numerous early challenges to his government, he heavily purged and politicized the Venezuelan military. Soldiers suddenly were expected to take an oath of loyalty to his “Bolivarian Revolution” and were strongly encouraged to exercise their newfound right to vote in favor of the ruling party. The military high command possessed roughly 100 generals when Chávez took power, a tally that has mushroomed to more than 2,000 over the past two decades. The president also restructured the armed forces around the Cuban territorial model, expanding the reach of the military throughout Venezuela while simultaneously diluting the power of individual commanders.

Maduro has even further politicized the Venezuelan military. The Directorate General of Military Counterintelligence (DGCIM), a feared internal surveillance organization, has agents infiltrated in every branch of the armed forces. All military personnel are obligated to report colleagues who openly criticize their working conditions or the regime itself. Those transgressions can then be punished with torture or arbitrary terms of imprisonment. To further deter potential disobedience among the troop rank and file, the regime harasses the families of soldiers who have been arrested or have deserted.

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A crisis concerning who is the legitimate President of Venezuela has been underway since 10 January 2019, with the nation and the world divided in support for Nicolás Maduro or Juan Guaidó.

Sign up here . CARACAS, Venezuela — President Nicolás Maduro has had a tumultuous 2019. He' s been locked in a power struggle with 35-year-old Juan Guaidó In spite of this, Maduro has remained in power in part by maintaining control of key political institutions, especially the military, through a

Chávez cultivated key foreign allies that could share vast repertoires of repressive expertise with the Venezuelan security services. As a result, the Cuban intelligence service G2 now has an estimated 2,500 operatives embedded within the Venezuelan military, supporting DGCIM counterintelligence operations designed to detect and prevent any uprisings within regional commands.

Recently, Maduro beefed up his personal security by hiring Russian contractors. What’s more, Chinese firms with close ties to Beijing helped implement Venezuela’s “Fatherland Card” initiative, a mandatory national identification card. The card collects personal information — including whether someone votes for the ruling PSUV party, which in turn uses the card to allocate subsidies for food, health care and other essential social programs.

The Venezuelan security apparatus also counts on the support of such groups as paramilitary organizations, prison gangs and Colombian insurgents. Paramilitary groups known as colectivos have proliferated under Maduro’s watch, helping the regime to violently disperse protests, intimidate opposition politicians and more recently to shore up the National Guard in peripheral regions.

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Venezuela ’ s crisis has raised questions that could determine the country’ s future — and that a Juan Guaidó, the opposition leader, has declared that President Nicolás Maduro is illegitimate and has Here is some help in trying to think them through. Who is more legitimate, Mr. Maduro or Mr. Guaidó?

Venezuela ’ s Maduro pressured by thousands of "23 enero" protestors inspired by Juan Guaido and A portrait of former Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez looks on as government supporters march In addition, many of Maduro ’ s loyalists are still in charge of the country’ s most important institutions.

Augmenting these efforts, organized prison gangs called mega-bandas have reportedly seen numerous members released in exchange for supporting the colectivos. The National Liberation Army (ELN), a formidable Colombian insurgent group, controls vast swaths of territory in the Venezuelan periphery, serving as a potential first line of defense for Maduro in the event of an unlikely foreign invasion.

2. Economic distress has led Maduro to find new ways to buy the military’s loyalty

During his 14 years in power, Chávez depended on record international oil prices to fuel a massive economic boom. He used that income to aggressively expand the military and put it in charge of the day-to-day management of Venezuela.

But Maduro assumed the presidency when the price of crude was in serious decline, resulting in economic contraction and runaway hyperinflation. Venezuelan oil production declined dramatically over the past decade. The national economy has all but collapsed, a catastrophe that has prompted 1 million Venezuelans to migrate abroad in the past nine months alone. Economic sanctions have deepened the crisis.

As a result, the Maduro regime has developed new revenue sources to ensure the continued loyalty of his ruling coalition. Under Chávez and Maduro, the Venezuelan military has converted Venezuela into a prominent drug transshipment point, exporting an estimated 400 metric tons of cocaine annually to North American and European markets. The recent economic collapse has made it harder for the National Guard and other nonstate actors to bring in funds by smuggling food or gasoline across the border. But they’ve replaced this revenue by extorting money from anyone who wants to flee the country, whether by legal or illegal border crossings.

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Venezuela's Maduro confirms secret high-level talks with US officials The South American nation is currently in the midst of one of the worst humanitarian crises in recent memory.

Venezuela is enduring economic depression and humanitarian crisis. The US issued sanctions against the country in an Nicolás Maduro was voted into office a month later when the country' s luck was drying up. However, Venezuela is still in one of the worst economic depressions in modern history.

In Venezuela , President Nicolas Maduro has adopted this tactic since day one. Massive Control and Repression. People often wonder why Maduro is still in power if at least 80 percent Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed here are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the

Illegal gold mining has also exploded in recent years. Maduro authorized a “mining arc” across an expanse of 110,000 square kilometers (about 43,000 square miles) in southern Venezuela, which was supposed to lead to government contracts with businesses that would mine and sell the precious metal. Instead, the area has been unofficially plundered by different branches of the armed forces, the ELN and local criminal groups.

3. New sanctions will divide the opposition and worsen the country’s humanitarian crisis.

Trump’s recent economic sanctions are likely to further divide the Venezuelan opposition and worsen the ongoing humanitarian crisis. Maduro suspended negotiations with the opposition Aug. 7, ostensibly to protest Washington’s new sanctions — giving it a convenient excuse to abandon the talks.

Both in the Trump administration and within the Venezuelan opposition, some hard-liners believe that increasing economic pressure will ultimately weaken Maduro. But that view fails to consider the many different groups propping up the regime.

The Venezuelan security apparatus is flush with illicit revenue. Lacking a discernible central command, these divergent actors often compete with one another over lucrative economic activities and are united only by their willingness to put the Maduro regime’s survival ahead of any political reforms.

Even if Maduro were removed tomorrow, the system created by Chávez would continue to wield power in Venezuela.

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Charles Larratt-Smith (@larratt_smith) is a PhD candidate in political science at the University of Toronto.

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