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World Vaccine storage demands could leave 3B people in virus cold

13:07  19 october  2020
13:07  19 october  2020 Source:   msn.com

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Excessive heat or cold exposure can damage vaccines . The “ cold chain” refers to the process used to maintain optimal conditions during the transport, storage , and handling of vaccines , starting at the manufacturer and ending with the administration of the vaccine to the client (1). The optimum

Start studying Viruses & Vaccines 18.1-3. Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards He took extracts from diseased leaves and passed them through filters that would trap bacteria, the A capsid is the protein shell of the virus , surrounding the genetic material, and can be surrounded by a

GAMPELA, Burkina Faso (AP) — From factory to syringe, the world’s most promising coronavirus vaccine candidates need nonstop sterile refrigeration to work.

Marguerite Ouangraoua, a nurse at the health clinic in Zeguedessin village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, opens the fridge where the clinic keeps the vaccines, Thursday Oct. 8, 2020. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick) © Provided by Associated Press Marguerite Ouangraoua, a nurse at the health clinic in Zeguedessin village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, opens the fridge where the clinic keeps the vaccines, Thursday Oct. 8, 2020. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick)

But despite great strides in equipping developing countries to maintain the vaccine “cold chain,” nearly 3 billion of the world's 7.8 billion people live in places with insufficient temperature-controlled storage for an immunization campaign to bring COVID-19 under control.

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exterior door are not appropriate for vaccine storage . under any circumstances. The preferred unit is a. stand-alone refrigerator and a separate freezer. Objective: To study the inhibiting effect of baicalin on influenza type A and B, herpes simplex type I and II and Cox B3 virus infections in cultured cells.

Start studying Module Three ( b )- Vaccines . Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools. What is a good natural immune response to haemophilus influenzae type B? It is coated in polysaccharide capsule which prevents C 3 b binding thereby avoiding phagocytosis.

A woman sits on a bed in a small clinic in Zeguedessin village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, receiving medical treatment on Thursday Oct. 8, 2020. The hospital's solar fridge has been broken for a year meaning there is less space in the hospital to store large amounts of vaccines. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick) © Provided by Associated Press A woman sits on a bed in a small clinic in Zeguedessin village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, receiving medical treatment on Thursday Oct. 8, 2020. The hospital's solar fridge has been broken for a year meaning there is less space in the hospital to store large amounts of vaccines. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick)

The result: Poor people around the world are likely to be the last to emerge from the pandemic. The cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in conditions that allow the virus to spread and whose health systems are not equipped for large-scale testing.

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Vaccines that contain weakened strains of virus can be dangerous for older people , but might be given to Meanwhile, older people might get vaccines that simply prevent infections progressing to “We should be demanding , now, a global conference on what we’re going to do when we get a

Start studying Vaccines . Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools. Exposes the body to antigens that are similar to the antigens found on a pathogen. By posing as a specific pathogen, the vaccine primes the immune system to respond with speed and strength if

Maintaining the cold chain for coronavirus vaccines won’t be easy in the richest of countries, especially when it comes to the handful of candidates that require ultracold temperatures of around minus 70 degrees Celsius (minus 94 F). Logistics experts say most of Africa and much of Southeast Asia, Central Asia and Latin America lack the infrastructure to preserve even more conventional vaccines.

Two women sit outside a small clinic in Gampela village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, Saturday Oct. 10, 2020, waiting to take their children to the doctor. They sometimes wait up to four hours to get medical help. The public health clinic responsible for serving approximately 11,000 people, did not have a working fridge for almost a year. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick) © Provided by Associated Press Two women sit outside a small clinic in Gampela village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, Saturday Oct. 10, 2020, waiting to take their children to the doctor. They sometimes wait up to four hours to get medical help. The public health clinic responsible for serving approximately 11,000 people, did not have a working fridge for almost a year. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick)

A tiny medical clinic outside Burkina Faso's capital that went nearly a year without a working refrigerator is a microcosm of how the cold chain can break.

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A classic vaccine uses a weakened version of a virus to trigger an immune response. But in the technology that the institute is using, a different virus The institute last week began a Phase I clinical trial involving 1,100 people . Crucially, next month it will begin a combined Phase II and Phase III trial

Understanding a Common Cold Virus . Human rhinovirus.Wellcome Images. People in the United States have an estimated 1 billion colds each year. More than 200 different viruses are known to cause the symptoms of It may also prove valuable for developing antiviral medications and vaccines .

The clinic in Gampela couldn't keep vaccines on site once its refrigerator broke last fall, nurse Julienne Zoungrana said. Staff members use motorcycles to fetch vials from a hospital in the capital, Ouagadougo, and must make a second trip to return unused doses.

When Adama Tapsoba, 24, needs to take her baby for routine immunizations, she walks four hours to reach the clinic and often waits hours for a doctor. The mother of two thinks it will be difficult for her family to get coronavirus vaccines.

“People will have to wait at the hospital, and they might leave without getting it," she said.

To uphold the cold chain in developing nations, international organizations have overseen the installation of tens of thousands of solar-powered vaccine refrigerators. Keeping temperature-sensitive vaccines safe from beginning to end also requires reliable electricity, sound roads and planning.

For poor countries like Burkina Faso, the best chance for receiving supplies of a coronavirus vaccine is through the Covax initiative, led by the World Health Organization and the Gavi vaccine alliance. The goal of Covax is to place orders for multiple promising candidates with the aim of distributing successful ones equitably.

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Many types of viruses can cause a common cold . Children younger than 6 are at greatest risk of colds , but healthy adults can also expect to have two Most people recover from a common cold in a week or 10 days. Symptoms might last longer in people who smoke. If symptoms don't improve, see

Start studying Vaccines . Learn vocabulary, terms and more with flashcards, games and other study tools. Has to be tested in people who are at risk for infection in clinical trial. - Safety: no disease, minimal side effects. Having flu-like symptoms for flu vaccine is good because its stimulating the

Empty vaccine bottles lie on a tray inside a small clinic in Gampela village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, Saturday Oct. 10, 2020. The public health clinic responsible for serving approximately 11,000 people, did not have a working fridge for almost a year. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick) © Provided by Associated Press Empty vaccine bottles lie on a tray inside a small clinic in Gampela village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, Saturday Oct. 10, 2020. The public health clinic responsible for serving approximately 11,000 people, did not have a working fridge for almost a year. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick)

The U.N.'s children's agency, UNICEF, began laying the groundwork for global distribution months ago in Copenhagen. At the world’s largest humanitarian aid warehouse, logistics staff try to foresee shortages in part by learning from the past, especially the spring chaos surrounding masks and other protective gear that were commandeered off airport tarmacs or stolen for black-market trade.

A woman sits on the ground beside a sleeping child, outside a small clinic in Gampela village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, Saturday Oct. 10, 2020. People sometimes wait up to four hours to get medical help. The public health clinic responsible for serving approximately 11,000 people, did not have a working fridge for almost a year. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick) © Provided by Associated Press A woman sits on the ground beside a sleeping child, outside a small clinic in Gampela village on the outskirts of Burkina Faso's capital, Ouagadougou, Saturday Oct. 10, 2020. People sometimes wait up to four hours to get medical help. The public health clinic responsible for serving approximately 11,000 people, did not have a working fridge for almost a year. The vaccine cold chain hurdle is just the latest disparity of the pandemic weighted against the poor, who more often live and work in crowded conditions that allow the virus to spread, have little access to medical oxygen vital to COVID-19 treatment, and whose health systems lack labs, supplies or technicians to carry out large-scale testing. (AP Photo/Sam Mednick)

Cracks in the cold chain start once a vaccine leaves the factory. Cargo ships are too slow for vaccines with a limited shelf life. Carrying vaccines by air at cold temperatures costs a lot more, and air cargo traffic is only now rebounding from pandemic-related border closures.

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German logistics company DHL, which has expanded its cold storage capacity in response to the pandemic, estimated that 15,000 cargo flights would be required to fully vaccinate the world against the coronavirus.

Image taken from video showing an aerial view of the UNICEF warehouse, the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse, in Copenhagen, Denmark, Tuesday Oct. 13, 2020. For Burkina Faso, India, Venezuela and other countries with shaky health care delivery systems, the best chance for receiving scarce supplies of a coronavirus vaccine is through the Covax initiative, led by the World Health Organization and the Gavi vaccine alliance. UNICEF began laying the groundwork months ago in Copenhagen, at the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse. (AP Photo) © Provided by Associated Press Image taken from video showing an aerial view of the UNICEF warehouse, the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse, in Copenhagen, Denmark, Tuesday Oct. 13, 2020. For Burkina Faso, India, Venezuela and other countries with shaky health care delivery systems, the best chance for receiving scarce supplies of a coronavirus vaccine is through the Covax initiative, led by the World Health Organization and the Gavi vaccine alliance. UNICEF began laying the groundwork months ago in Copenhagen, at the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse. (AP Photo)

For every gap in the cold chain “we need to find a bridge,” DHL chief commercial officer Katja Busch said.

Coronavirus vaccines will be one of the world’s most sought-after products, so theft is also a danger.

“They can’t be left on a tarmac and fought over because they would actually be spoiled and they would have no value — or worse still, people would still be trying to distribute them,” said Glyn Hughes, the global head of cargo for the International Air Transport Association.

Image taken from video shows people working inside the UNICEF warehouse, the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse, in Copenhagen, Denmark , Tuesday Oct. 13, 2020. For Burkina Faso, India, Venezuela and other countries with shaky health care delivery systems, the best chance for receiving scarce supplies of a coronavirus vaccine is through the Covax initiative, led by the World Health Organization and the Gavi vaccine alliance. UNICEF began laying the groundwork months ago in Copenhagen, at the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse. (AP Photo) © Provided by Associated Press Image taken from video shows people working inside the UNICEF warehouse, the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse, in Copenhagen, Denmark , Tuesday Oct. 13, 2020. For Burkina Faso, India, Venezuela and other countries with shaky health care delivery systems, the best chance for receiving scarce supplies of a coronavirus vaccine is through the Covax initiative, led by the World Health Organization and the Gavi vaccine alliance. UNICEF began laying the groundwork months ago in Copenhagen, at the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse. (AP Photo)

Johns Hopkins University researcher Tinglong Dai, who specializes in health care logistics, said creativity will be needed to keep the cold chain intact while coronavirus vaccines are dispersed on a global scale. Gavi and UNICEF have experimented with delivering vaccines by drone. India's largest cold storage company for food is weighing setting aside space for vaccines.

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This image taken from video shows the inside of the UNICEF warehouse, the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse, in Copenhagen, Denmark , Tuesday Oct. 13, 2020. For Burkina Faso, India, Venezuela and other countries with shaky health care delivery systems, the best chance for receiving scarce supplies of a coronavirus vaccine is through the Covax initiative, led by the World Health Organization and the Gavi vaccine alliance. UNICEF began laying the groundwork months ago in Copenhagen, at the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse. (AP Photo) © Provided by Associated Press This image taken from video shows the inside of the UNICEF warehouse, the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse, in Copenhagen, Denmark , Tuesday Oct. 13, 2020. For Burkina Faso, India, Venezuela and other countries with shaky health care delivery systems, the best chance for receiving scarce supplies of a coronavirus vaccine is through the Covax initiative, led by the World Health Organization and the Gavi vaccine alliance. UNICEF began laying the groundwork months ago in Copenhagen, at the world's largest humanitarian aid warehouse. (AP Photo)

“If people can figure out how to transport ice cream, they can transport vaccines,” Dai said.

Multi-dose vials, which are the equivalent of bulk storage for vaccines, reduce manufacturing and transportation costs. But if too few people show up for their jab in time, whatever remains in the vials must be discarded.

For now, UNICEF is betting on 20-dose vials and hoping that the amount wasted will stay below 15% for opened ones, according to Michelle Siedel, one of the agency's cold chain experts.

UNICEF also expects to have 520 million syringes pre-positioned and maps of where refrigeration needs are greatest by year-end, “to ensure that these supplies arrive in countries by the time the vaccines do,” Executive Director Henrietta Fore said.

If Burkina Faso were given 1 million doses of a coronavirus vaccine today, the country wouldn’t be able to handle it, Jean-Claude Mubalama, UNICEF’s head of health and nutrition for the West African country.

“If we had to vaccinate against the coronavirus now, at this moment, it would be impossible,” he said.

___

Hinnant contributed from Paris, along with Aniruddha Ghosal in Delhi; Christine Armario in Bogota, Colombia; and Linda A. Johnson in Fairless Hills, Pennsylvania.

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