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World Big chocolate companies use child labor. Can a 1789 US law hold them accountable for violations abroad?

00:55  30 october  2020
00:55  30 october  2020 Source:   pri.org

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They used child labor mostly in cocoa farms. They were threatened by airing off the video of the child labor , but it seemed that they were not affected They have not publically stated about child labor involvement. Rather than they have refused to support human rights violation and also are against

Children younger than 15 continue to work at cocoa farms connected to Nestlé, more than a decade after the food company promised to end the use of child labour in its supply chain. The FLA also found that farms lacked any kind of age verification system for workers to stop the use of child labour .

“What’s not to love about chocolate?” actor Idris Elba asks in a video that circulated on social media last month by the Dutch ethically sourced chocolate brand, Tony’s Chocolonely.

a store filled with lots of food on a table: Different types of chocolate bars are seen in the company supermarket at the Nestle headquarters in Vevey, Switzerland, Feb. 19, 2010. Nestle, the world's biggest food group, is aiming for higher underlying sales growth in 2010 after a robust performance in Asia and the Americas helped it beat forecasts for 2009. © Denis Balibouse/Reuters

Different types of chocolate bars are seen in the company supermarket at the Nestle headquarters in Vevey, Switzerland, Feb. 19, 2010. Nestle, the world's biggest food group, is aiming for higher underlying sales growth in 2010 after a robust performance in Asia and the Americas helped it beat forecasts for 2009.

Elba goes on to answer his own question: “Well, 2 million children working on cocoa plantations — that’s unfair.”

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US companies do not use child labor illegally. No US chocolate companies illegally use child labor in the USA . Some companies that use child labour iclude: Nike, Victoria's Secret, Gap, Aeropostale, Hersheys, Walt Disney, Toys R Us , and Forver 21.

The United States accounts for 20% of the world’s chocolate consumption. This means that they eat about as much chocolate every year as seafood. In Europe, the US , Australia, and Asia, most of the chocolate that is imported is coming from agricultural zones where slavery, child labor , and other

It’s a well-documented problem: Several big chocolate companies pledged to put an end to child slavery in the industry in 2001, under pressure from Congress. Yet, earlier this month, The University of Chicago, in a report sponsored by the US Department of Labor, found that some of the world’s leading chocolate companies depend on cocoa produced by more than 1 million child laborers in West Africa. And, despite the companies’ promises to do better, the report says, the problem has gotten worse.

Related: In Nigeria, girls are especially at risk for child labor

Some groups, like Tony’s Chocolonely, are trying to put a stop to it by raising public awareness. Others are taking legal action.

“Chocolate can be a powerful force for change. Join Tony’s Chocolonely — make illegal child labor and modern-day slavery a shame of the past.”

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The big tobacco companies all say they are opposed to child labour and fund various sustainability programmes to work against it. The letter of claim sent to BAT by human rights lawyers Leigh Day at the start of their fight for compensation for the families alleges that the company is responsible for the

Money allows us to exchange hours of labour _ goods and services. Varya has got orange. orange is big . ПОМОГИТЕ СРОЧНО УМОЛЯЮЮ ПРОШУ Exercise 2 Complete the table using the following list of words representing people’s hobbies. cards, board games, DIY … (do

Idris Elba, actor

“Chocolate can be a powerful force for change,” Elba says in the video. “Join Tony’s Chocolonely — make illegal child labor and modern-day slavery a shame of the past.”

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Still children should be especially careful about mobile phone use because their nervous system may be hurt. D. Many parents now use mobiles to control their children ’s behaviour. It gives parents peace of mind and makes young people feel protected.

Tony’s Chocolonely was one of many interested parties that submitted amicus briefs last week in a case that’s coming before the US Supreme Court in December. The suit was filed by six men who say they were kidnapped as children from their native Mali and enslaved on cocoa plantations in Ivory Coast. They allege that the US arms of companies Nestlé and Cargill knew that child labor was being used. Supreme Court justices will decide if those companies can be held responsible using an obscure law passed by the first US Congress in 1789 — called the Alien Tort Statute.

“Yes, it was in 1789, but it is still on the books,” said Katherine Gallagher of the Center for Constitutional Rights, which also filed an amicus brief in the case. “At the time that it was enacted, the Alien Tort Statute is clear that Congress intended there to be an option for non-US citizens to come into US courts and sue, especially US nationals when they've committed law of nations [international law] violations. And that's precisely the case before the Supreme Court in Nestle/Cargill.”

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They are called barristers and solicitors. In the USA and most other countries, lawyers don’t make The company didn’t deliver them on the agreed date, so Mr Flynn lost money because he could not Statutory Crimes – A violation of a specific state or federal statute and can involve either property

The US equivalent of a PLC is a company or corporation registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). All companies with shareholders or stockholders have to send them an Annual Report each financial year. This contains a review of the year’s activity, and an examination and

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Human rights lawyers first started using the Alien Tort Statute to go after corporations in the 1990s. John Bellinger said it caused chaos in the US State Department. He was its legal adviser under Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice.

“Foreign governments would come to me regularly at the State Department to complain, to say this is not the job of US judges to be adjudicating claims that occur in our countries,” said Bellinger, who submitted an amicus brief in support of Nestle/Cargill on behalf of the US Chamber of Commerce. “The United States, if the shoe was on the other foot, is concerned about the courts and prosecutors of other countries hearing claims about US conduct in the United States or elsewhere.”

He said that’s why, in recent years, the Supreme Court has handed down rulings that limited the Alien Tort Statute’s scope. In 2013, it ruled that the Alien Tort Statute does not apply to violations committed outside the US, said Ilya Shapiro, director of the Robert A. Levy Center for Constitutional Studies at the Cato Institute, which also submitted an amicus brief.

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“It's understandable that if you have human rights violations, you would try to find a remedy for that wherever you can,” he said. “But I don't think this is an appropriate way of either reading the Alien Tort Statute or of dragging American courts into disputes where Congress has not clearly stated they should be.”

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The case coming before the US Supreme Court gives justices a chance to clarify their interpretation of the Alien Tort Statute. Human rights lawyers hope they’ll consider the larger context: Europe is moving toward holding corporations liable for human rights violations committed outside their countries. And Canada’s Supreme Court recently opened the door for Canadian companies to be tried in Canada for human rights violations abroad. Canadian justices acknowledged that it’s often difficult to bring a case against a company in the countries where violations happen, said Tara Scurr, who works on corporate accountability for Amnesty International Canada.

“In many of those situations, there may not be an independent or functioning judiciary and a case against a powerful foreign company for human rights harms is likely to be unable to proceed fairly or without interference.”

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Tara Scurr, Amnesty International Canada

“In many of those situations, there may not be an independent or functioning judiciary and a case against a powerful foreign company for human rights harms is likely to be unable to proceed fairly or without interference,” she said.

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If other countries move toward more corporate accountability and the US doesn’t, international companies committing human rights violations may come to see the US as a safe harbor, said Charity Ryerson of the Chicago-based Corporate Accountability Lab.

“If companies know that they can get away with stuff like this, there's no reason for them to investigate their supply chains,” she said. “So, if you're incentivizing companies not being responsible for what happens in the production of the goods that they sell and that they produce, well, then you will have a lot of abuses.”

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