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World Germany marks 75th anniversary of landmark Nuremberg trials

15:05  19 november  2020
15:05  19 november  2020 Source:   msn.com

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Germany is marking the 75 th anniversary of the first Nuremberg trial . Initially, the trials , military tribunals by occupying powers, were barely respected in a country that wanted to forget. That was only after the landmark conviction in Munich in 2011 of John Demjanjuk, a Ukrainian collaboratorwho

The Nuremberg trials were a series of 13 trials carried out in Nuremberg , Germany , between 1945 and 1949 to try those accused of Nazi war crimes. The defendants, who included Nazi Party officials and high-ranking military officers, etc

BERLIN (AP) — Seventy-five years ago, the dock of Courtroom 600 of the Nuremberg Palace of Justice was packed with some of the most nefarious figures of the 20th Century: Hermann Goering, Rudolf Hess, Joachim von Ribbentrop and 18 other high-ranking Nazis.

The sun is reflected in a window of the 'Memorium Nuremberg Trials' at the palace of justice in Nuremberg, Germany, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 2020. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Matthias Schrader) © Provided by Associated Press The sun is reflected in a window of the 'Memorium Nuremberg Trials' at the palace of justice in Nuremberg, Germany, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 2020. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Matthias Schrader) Flags of Great Britain, the United States, France an Russia stand in front of the palace of justice in Nuremberg, Germany, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 2020. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020.  (AP Photo/Matthias Schrader) © Provided by Associated Press Flags of Great Britain, the United States, France an Russia stand in front of the palace of justice in Nuremberg, Germany, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 2020. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Matthias Schrader)

They weren’t yet known as war criminals — it was a charge that didn’t exist until the Nuremberg trials began on Nov. 20, 1945, in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law.

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Germany marks Nuremberg tribunals. Nuremberg sought justice for the millions murdered or persecuted. Germany is holding a series of events marking the 60 th anniversary of the Nuremberg trials , where Nazi leaders were convicted of war crimes.

Eyewitnesses to the landmark Nuremberg war crimes trials of top Nazi leaders are returning to the courtroom where the proceedings took place to mark the 70th The Nuremberg Trial memorial said Moritz Fuchs, a guard to chief U.S. prosecutor Robert Jackson; George Sakheim, a U.S. interpreter

Traffic signs are stacked inside the 'Congress Hall' at the 'Reichsparteigelande' (Nazi Party Rally Grounds) in Nuremberg, Germany, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 2020. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Matthias Schrader) © Provided by Associated Press Traffic signs are stacked inside the 'Congress Hall' at the 'Reichsparteigelande' (Nazi Party Rally Grounds) in Nuremberg, Germany, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 2020. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Matthias Schrader)

The proceedings broke new ground in holding government leaders individually responsible for their aggression and slaughter of millions of innocents. In addition to establishing the offense of war crimes, it also produced the charges of crimes against peace, waging a war of aggression, and crimes against humanity, whose legacies live on in the International Criminal Court of today.

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Nuremberg was marking the 60 th anniversary Sunday of the postwar trial of some of Nazi Germany 's top leaders, a landmark process that ushered in a new era of international law. In the oak-paneled Courtroom 600 of the Nuremberg Palace of Justice on Nov.

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FILE - In this Sept. 12, 1946 file photo, Albert Speer, Hitler's former architect and armament minister during WW II, a defendant in the war crimes trial at Nuremberg, Germany is pictured in court in Nuremberg. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - In this Sept. 12, 1946 file photo, Albert Speer, Hitler's former architect and armament minister during WW II, a defendant in the war crimes trial at Nuremberg, Germany is pictured in court in Nuremberg. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file)

Nuremberg was the city where Adolf Hitler reviewed torchlight Nazi party rallies and promulgated the race laws of 1935 that paved the way for the Holocaust.

FILE - In this Sept. 30, 1946 file photo, members of the International Military Tribunal read the verdicts in the courtroom of the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg, Germany. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Eddie Worth, file) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - In this Sept. 30, 1946 file photo, members of the International Military Tribunal read the verdicts in the courtroom of the Palace of Justice in Nuremberg, Germany. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Eddie Worth, file)

Filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl's famous propaganda movie “Triumph of the Will,” with its sweeping aerial photography and other pioneering techniques, brought the 1934 Nuremberg Nazi Party Congress to the world, with footage of top officials speaking to massive crowds of followers at the Bavarian city's Luitpold Arena and the sweeping Zeppelin Field. The Congress Hall begun by the Nazis near the parade grounds was never finished, and today houses a documentation center about Nuremberg's history during the Nazi era.

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Unprecedented in history, the Nuremberg Trial brought high-ranking Nazis to justice. This is the story of how the trial took shape in postwar Germany . Twenty-one tired-looking men sat in two rows in a Nuremberg courtroom, on trial for their lives. They were what remained of the top leadership of the

D-Day Anniversary Marked With Release Of Rare Color Photos. Nuremberg trials - Herta Oberheuser was the only female defendant in the Nuremberg Medical Trial , where she was sentenced to 20 years in jail. [edit] Release from prisonShe was released in April 1952 for good behavior and

FILE - In this Nov. 20, 1945 file photo, military police line the courtroom during the first morning session in Nuremberg. In the foreground, sit the defendants with their counsel sitting in front of them. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/B.I. Sanders, file) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - In this Nov. 20, 1945 file photo, military police line the courtroom during the first morning session in Nuremberg. In the foreground, sit the defendants with their counsel sitting in front of them. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/B.I. Sanders, file)

The choice to use the city's Palace of Justice for the trials was less symbolic than pragmatic, as it was one of the few large buildings left undamaged by Allied bombing during the war.

FILE - In this Nov. 21, 1945 file photo, Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering stands in the prisoner's dock at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial in Germany. He is entering a plea of not guilty to the International Military Tribunal Indictment. Goering is wearing headphones of the court translating system. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - In this Nov. 21, 1945 file photo, Reichsmarshal Hermann Goering stands in the prisoner's dock at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial in Germany. He is entering a plea of not guilty to the International Military Tribunal Indictment. Goering is wearing headphones of the court translating system. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file)

The testimony of hundreds of witnesses was heard over 218 trial days. One of them was Rudolf Hoess, the Auschwitz death camp commandant, who “reacted to the order to slaughter human beings as he would have to an order to fell trees,” wrote U.S. prosecutor Whitney R. Harris.

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In this Sept. 30 1946 file photo, defendants listen to part of the verdict in the Palace of Justice during the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial in Nuremberg, Germany. Seated in the first row in the prisoner's dock are, from left: Hermann Goering, wearing dark glasses; Rudolf Hess; Joachim von Ribbentrop; Wilhelm Keitel; Ernest Kaltenbrunner; Alfred Rosenberg; Erich Raeder, wearing dark glasses; Wilhelm Frick; Julius Streicher;and Walter Funk. In the back row in front of the police guards are, from left: Karl Doenitz; Constantin von Neurath; Baldur von Schirach, wearing dark glasses; Fritz Sauckel; Alfred Jodl; Franz von Papen; Arthur Seyss-Inquart; and Albert Speer. Seated at the tables in front of the defendants are their council. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Eddie Worth, file): FILE - In this Sept. 12, 1946 file photo, Albert Speer, Hitler's former architect and armament minister during WW II, a defendant in the war crimes trial at Nuremberg, Germany is pictured in court in Nuremberg. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - In this Sept. 12, 1946 file photo, Albert Speer, Hitler's former architect and armament minister during WW II, a defendant in the war crimes trial at Nuremberg, Germany is pictured in court in Nuremberg. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file)

Chief U.S. prosecutor Robert Jackson and his colleagues also had the Nazis’ own meticulous records to work from, quoting document after document in “laying bare the workings of the German conspiracy,” Associated Press correspondent Daniel De Luce reported from the courtroom at the time.

Young men play hockey in front of the main tribune at the 'Zeppelinfeld' of the 'Reichsparteigelande' (Nazi Party Rally Grounds) in Nuremberg, Germany, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 2020. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Matthias Schrader) © Provided by Associated Press Young men play hockey in front of the main tribune at the 'Zeppelinfeld' of the 'Reichsparteigelande' (Nazi Party Rally Grounds) in Nuremberg, Germany, Wednesday, Nov. 18, 2020. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Matthias Schrader)

On Oct. 1, 1946, Goering, Hitler’s air force chief and right-hand man, was sentenced to death along with 11 others, including Martin Bormann, Hitler’s deputy, who was tried in absentia. Bormann is now known to have died in Berlin in 1945 as he tried to flee the Soviets. Seven drew long prison sentences and three were acquitted.

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FILE - In this Aug. 30, 1945 file photo, figures stand in the cell block in the Nuremberg prison, Germany, which will house war criminals awaiting trial. At the end is seen a boarded up section where important prisoners will be housed. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - In this Aug. 30, 1945 file photo, figures stand in the cell block in the Nuremberg prison, Germany, which will house war criminals awaiting trial. At the end is seen a boarded up section where important prisoners will be housed. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file)

Fifteen days later, the condemned men were hanged in the courthouse’s adjacent prison. Goering committed suicide by swallowing a poison pill in his cell the night before.

FILE - In this April 14, 1949 file photo, defendant Gottlob Berger, former chief of the SS head office, is sentenced to 25 years imprisonment, flanked by Sgt. 1st class Thomas H. Andress from Palestine, Texas, member of the honor guard 16th inf., left, and an not identified honor guard in Nuremberg, Germany. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Albert Riethausen, file) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - In this April 14, 1949 file photo, defendant Gottlob Berger, former chief of the SS head office, is sentenced to 25 years imprisonment, flanked by Sgt. 1st class Thomas H. Andress from Palestine, Texas, member of the honor guard 16th inf., left, and an not identified honor guard in Nuremberg, Germany. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Albert Riethausen, file)

One of the last surviving witnesses to the trial, Emilio DiPalma, died earlier this year after contracting the coronavirus in the care home where he lived in Massachusetts.

FILE - In this Dec. 30, 1947 file photo, defendant German Fieldmarshal Wilhelm Leeb pleads not guilty during the Nuremberg Trials, Case 12, in the courthouse in Nuremberg, Germany, at the opening of the case against himself and other high ranking German officers during WW II. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - In this Dec. 30, 1947 file photo, defendant German Fieldmarshal Wilhelm Leeb pleads not guilty during the Nuremberg Trials, Case 12, in the courthouse in Nuremberg, Germany, at the opening of the case against himself and other high ranking German officers during WW II. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file)

After fighting the Germans on the front lines during the war, DiPalma found himself at age 19 being tasked to serve as a guard in the courtroom, where he stood at the witness box with his arms clasped behind his back while Hitler’s deputies were grilled about their atrocities.

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FILE - In this May 28, 1946 file photo, U.S. military authorities prepare to hang Dr. Klaus Karl Schilling, 74, at Landsberg, Germany. In a Dachau war crimes trial he was convicted of using 1,200 concentration camp prisoners for malaria experimentation. Thirty died directly from the inoculations and 300 to 400 died later from complications of the disease. His experiments all with unwilling subjects began in 1942. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020.  (AP Photo/Robert Clover, file) © Provided by Associated Press FILE - In this May 28, 1946 file photo, U.S. military authorities prepare to hang Dr. Klaus Karl Schilling, 74, at Landsberg, Germany. In a Dachau war crimes trial he was convicted of using 1,200 concentration camp prisoners for malaria experimentation. Thirty died directly from the inoculations and 300 to 400 died later from complications of the disease. His experiments all with unwilling subjects began in 1942. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo/Robert Clover, file)

“To this day, I can hardly believe that any human being could do such cruel things to another,” DiPalma wrote in his memoirs.

In this Aug. 31, 1945 file photo, the exterior of the prison, adjoining the courtroom, is seen at Nuremberg, Germany. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file) © Provided by Associated Press In this Aug. 31, 1945 file photo, the exterior of the prison, adjoining the courtroom, is seen at Nuremberg, Germany. Germany marks the 75th anniversary of the landmark Nuremberg trials of several Nazi leaders and in what is now seen as the birthplace of a new era of international law on Friday, Nov. 20, 2020. (AP Photo, file)

The city of Nuremberg is marking the anniversary in Courtroom 600 with a ceremony Friday that will include German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier as the guest of honor. Due to coronavirus restrictions it will be closed to the public, but will be broadcast live on the internet including an English translation.

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