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World Ethiopia. Five questions to understand the conflict in the Tigray region

09:15  29 november  2020
09:15  29 november  2020 Source:   ouest-france.fr

Ethiopia's Tigray: These refugees fled a town littered with corpses. They join tens of thousands making the journey to Sudan

  Ethiopia's Tigray: These refugees fled a town littered with corpses. They join tens of thousands making the journey to Sudan Thousands have made the journey from the Tigray region in Ethiopia to neighboring Sudan where they have been met with a shortage of food, beds and shelter. The UN described Tigray as a humanitarian crisis which will only escalate in the coming weeks. A town 'covered with corpses'Another survivor, Gashaw Maleda, said four of his friends escaped, but another 15 were killed. Tigrayan militias came with machetes and knives, looking for people from the Amhara region to kill, he said. © Marwan Ali/AP At least 30,000 refugees have fled to neigboring Sudan, according to the UN. "I hated being human at the time.

Flags representing the Tigray region of Ethiopia lining a wall in the Tigrayan city of Mekele. The region has experienced rising tensions with The conflict comes as Ethiopia , Africa’s second-most populous nation, faces mounting economic and social challenges amid a volatile democratic transition.

Ethiopian government denies rejecting talks as PM launches ‘final assault’ on region .

Un membre de la police du Tigré à un poste de contrôle dans la banlieue de la capitale Mekele, le 9 septembre 2020. © EDUARDO SOTERAS / AFP A member of the Tigray police at a checkpoint in the suburb of the capital Mekele, September 9, 2020.

An armed conflict rages on in the state of Tigray, in northern Ethiopia, since early November. It opposes the Ethiopian federal government and the regional government of Tigray. And pushes tens of thousands of Ethiopians to flee to neighboring Sudan. Explanations.

Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed announced on Saturday evening that the army had taken "control" of Mekele , the capital of Tigray located in northern Ethiopia. According to him, this is the completion of "final phase" of the military operation started on November 4. But what is happening in this region of Africa?

After escaping Ethiopia, mothers face giving birth in camps

  After escaping Ethiopia, mothers face giving birth in camps Like all mothers-to-be, Berekhti Burro dreamt of bringing new life into the world in a safe place, with love and care at home to give her baby the best start. But Burro, nine-months pregnant, was forced to flee intense fighting near her home in Humera in Ethiopia's northern Tigray region, trekking for hours in the blazing sun to safety in neighbouring Sudan. Now the 27-year-old sits with her husband in their new home; a makeshift shelter in the rapidly growing tent-town of Um Raquba refugee camp, some 80 kilometres (50 miles) from the border.

Ethiopian government denies rejecting talks as PM launches 'final assault' on region . Duchess of Cambridge takes questions on early years campaign. PA Media. A member of the Amhara Special Forces at the 5 th Battalion of the Ethiopian Ethiopian women and children flee fighting in Tigray .

Tigray men who fled the conflict in Ethiopia 's Tigray region , work to build shelters at Umm Rakouba refugee camp in Qadarif, eastern Sudan, Thursday, Nov. Ethiopia 's prime minister said Thursday the army has been ordered to move on the embattled Tigray regional capital after his 72-hour ultimatum

Where is the Tigray region located?

Tigray is one of the ten semi-autonomous states which form the Ethiopian federation. This mountainous region lies to the north of Ethiopia and has a population of around five million. Nearly 500,000 inhabitants live in its capital Makalé.

Ethiopia, second in Africa by population, is a landlocked country between Sudan, Somalia, Djibouti and Eritrea.

Who are the two main actors in this conflict?

On the one hand, the federal government based in Addis Ababa. It is headed by Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2019. On the other, the dissident troops of the Tigray Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF), of which Debretsion Gebremichael is the leader. He is also the interim vice-president of the Tigray region.

Ethiopian prime minister warns Tigray forces to surrender within 72 hours

  Ethiopian prime minister warns Tigray forces to surrender within 72 hours Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed gave Tigray forces three days to surrender as conflict continues in the region. © Provided by Washington Examiner Ahmed cautioned the forces to surrender in 72 hours in a tweet on Sunday, adding they were at the "at the point of no return." Ethiopian troops plan to surround Mekelle, Tigray's capital, with tanks in an attempt to force a surrender, according to Reuters. Reuters couldn't immediately reach Tigrayan forces for comment. Fighting has escalated since Ahmed accused Tigray's forces of attacking federal Ethiopian troops on Nov. 4.

Capital of Ethiopia 's Tigray region under control of Ethiopian forces, says PM after intense bombardment. The United States is gravely concerned about the worsening situation in the Tigray region of Ethiopia . We support the @_AfricanUnion efforts to initiate dialogue and restore peace.

Ethiopian government denies rejecting talks as PM launches 'final assault' on region . On the site of the army barracks where Ethiopia 's conflict began.

Who lit the fuse?

Hostilities were launched on the night of November 3-4. The Ethiopian federal army is said to have launched an air-land assault on the dissident region of Tigray (north), where militiamen allegedly attacked two federal military bases. The TPLF contradicts this version and accuses the Prime Minister of having invented this story to justify his military intervention

But the tensions between the federal government and the leaders of the Tigrayan minority are not new. The regional authorities of the Tigray Peoples Liberation Front (TPLF) accuse Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed of having gradually marginalized the Tigrayan minority (6% of the population) since coming to power in April 2018

To challenge power in Instead, Tigray decided to organize its own elections last September. And this, despite the federal power's decision to postpone all elections due to the coronavirus pandemic. Prime Minister Addis Ababa has since considered Tigray's regional government illegal. The Ethiopian parliament voted on November 7 to revoke the regional parliament and the executive of Tigray

Ethiopia says foes surrendering, Tigray forces report battle win

  Ethiopia says foes surrendering, Tigray forces report battle win Ethiopia says foes surrendering, Tigray forces report battle winHundreds have died, more than 41,000 refugees have fled to Sudan, and there has been widespread destruction and uprooting of people from homes in the northern Tigray region.

Tigray men who fled the conflict in Ethiopia 's Tigray region , stand in line to receive food cooked by Sudanese women volunteers, at Umm Rakouba refugee Ethiopia 's prime minister said Thursday the army has been ordered to move on the embattled Tigray regional capital after his 72-hour ultimatum

The capital of Ethiopia 's northern Tigray region has come under heavy shelling from government forces, aid workers and regional officials say. The United States is gravely concerned about the worsening situation in the Tigray region of Ethiopia .

Why this conflict is destabilizing the region of the Horn of Africa

The Tigray Force Command accuses Eritrea of ​​helping strong to the Ethiopian federal army by letting its air force take off from Eritrean territory, but also by intervening militarily in the fighting in Tigray. He had threatened to fire missiles in "retaliation" against Asmara and Massaoua, an Eritrean port on the Red Sea. Asmara, the capital of Eritrea, has been repeatedly hit by rockets fired from Ethiopia's Tigray region. The conflict is destabilizing the entire Horn of Africa region. Eritrea is the sworn enemy of the TPLF, which for almost 30 years controlled the political and security apparatus in Ethiopia.

Ethiopia and Eritrea clashed in a deadly war between 1998 and 2000, when the TPLF was all-powerful in Addis Ababa. The two countries remained at loggerheads until Abiy Ahmed became Prime Minister in 2018 and made peace with Asmara, which won him the Nobel Prize in 2019.

What consequences for the civilian populations?

The Secretary General of the UN, Antonio Guterres, asked on November 20 "the opening of humanitarian corridors" to come to the aid of the population trapped in the fighting in the Ethiopian region of Tigray. Amnesty International has denounced a "massacre" of civilians.

More than 43,000 Ethiopians have taken refuge in Sudan but, in their frantic flight, some have lost track of a child, father or mother

Rockets target Eritrea capital after Ethiopia declares victory in Tigray .
Rockets launched from Ethiopia's northern Tigray region targeted the capital of Eritrea several hours after Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed declared military operations in the region were over, diplomats told AFP Sunday. It remained impossible to independently verify whether the regional capital Mekele was completely under federal government control, though a military spokesman told AFP operations were proceeding "very well". The US embassyIt remained impossible to independently verify whether the regional capital Mekele was completely under federal government control, though a military spokesman told AFP operations were proceeding "very well".

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